Category Archives: Resources

USAID Global Waters – May 2017

USAID Global Waters – May 2017

Articles in this issue include:

Where WASH Saves Lives: Creating New Traditions in Nepal: Safe WASH II is trying a new approach to chhaupadi to ensure sustained behavior change with the hope that traditional healers and religious leaders can harness community energy to transform the meaning of menstrual taboos globalwaters

Doubling Access to Safe Drinking Water: How Four African Countries Did It – The WALIS project identified four common elements applied to local systems in Ethiopia, Rwanda, Senegal, and South Africa that contributed to meeting the Millennium Development Goal for clean water access to help other countries learn how to replicate their success.

Tackling Water Issues Lightens the Load for Garment Workers: On World Water Day 2017, USAID and Gap Inc. announced the formation of the Women + Water Global Development Alliance to advance the health and well-being of women, families, and communities touched by the apparel industry.

Real Impact: Water Security for Resilient Economic Growth and Stability: Working in six sites in the Philippines, Be Secure has spent the past five years increasing sustainable access to water and wastewater treatment services and resilience to water stress and extreme weather.

With Water Pours Out Hope: One Village in Tajikistan Builds a Better Future: USAID is working with local governments to improve their capacity to deliver municipal services and providing support to install inexpensive water systems to improve citizens’ access to clean drinking water.

Recent WASH research

OPEN ACCESS

The science behind One Health: at the interface of humans, animals, and the environment. Annals NY Academy of Sciences, May 15, 2017.

According to the One Health Commission, nearly 75% of emerging human infectious diseases in the past three decades originated in animals. Poor environmental health brought on by contamination, pollution, and degradation of air, water, and land creates disturbances that foment cross-species infectious disease transmission, as well as noninfectious disease spread across entire populations of humans and animals.

The threat of antimicrobial resistance in developing countries: causes and control strategies. Antimicrobial Resistance & Infection Control, May 15, 2017.

Apart from the irrational use of antimicrobials, unique environmental conditions such as crowding and poor sanitation also contribute in the circulation and spread of resistant microorganisms.

Sustainability of community-led total sanitation outcomes: Evidence from Ethiopia and Ghana. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, May 2017.

This study provides new evidence that CLTS outcomes can be sustained in the presence of training provided to local actors, and strengthens previous recommendations that CLTS is not appropriate in all settings and should be combined with efforts to address barriers households face to building higher quality latrines.

Assessing patterns and determinants of latrine use in rural settings: A longitudinal study in Odisha, India. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, May 2017.

Results highlight the low and inconsistent use of subsidized latrines built under the TSC in rural Odisha. This study identifies individual and household levels factors that may be used to target behavior change campaigns to drive consistent use of sanitation facilities by all.

Processes and challenges of community mobilisation for latrine promotion under Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan in rural Odisha, India. BMC Public Health, May 16, 2017.

Agencies or organizations implementing sanitation campaigns and conducting sanitation promotions need to enhance their staff’s knowledge and build capacity in order to address important social heterogeneity within villages.

FROM PILOT PROJECT TO EMERGING SANITATION SERVICE. WSUP, May 2017.

This Brief looks at lessons learned by a local small and medium sized enterprise which operates a new fecal sludge emptying service – SWEEP.

ABSTRACT/ORDER

Predictors of drinking water boiling and bottled water consumption in rural China: A hierarchical modeling approach. Environ. Sci. Technol, May 20, 2017.

Our findings show that boiling is not an undifferentiated practice, but one with different methods of varying effectiveness, environmental impact, and adoption across socioeconomic strata.

Environmentally sustainable WASH? Current discourse, planetary boundaries and future directions. Jnl of WASH for Development, March 2017.

This paper reviews recent literature at the intersection of WASH and environmental sustainability to identify current themes and future directions. Findings point to both opportunities and gaps within current sector thinking, which can drive leadership from knowledge and research institutions towards better integration of access and environmental sustainability imperatives.

RECENT NEWS

John Oldfield- Water Is Global (In)Security. Forbes, May 23, 2017.

Agencies Launch Water Monitoring Tools and Processes for SDG 6 Reporting. IISD, May 23, 2017.

Celebrating Menstrual Hygiene Day 2017 – Water Currents

Celebrated worldwide on May 28 each year, Menstrual Hygiene Day (MHD) is a global initiative that brings together organizations, individuals, and the media to raise awareness about menstrual hygiene management (MHM). mhday

This issue of Water Currents contains information on MHD events, select 2017 and 2016 publications and videos on the topic, links to relevant websites, and news articles. (Photo Credit: USAID/WASHplus)

Events 
Menstrual Hygiene Day, May 28, 2017. WASH United, 2017. The theme for 2017’s advocacy event is “Education about Menstruation Changes Everything.” MHD raises awareness of the challenges women and girls worldwide face due to their menstruation and highlights solutions that address these challenges. The MHD website features campaign materials, a list of events, and fact sheets and other resources.

Menstrual Hygiene Management in Emergencies: Global Guidelines and Lessons Learned from the Philippines. UNESCO, May 2017. A recording of this webinar, held May 17, will soon be available on the Schools & Health website. Marni Sommer discussed the soon-to-be published Menstrual Hygiene Management in Emergencies toolkit developed by Columbia University and the International Rescue Committee in partnership with the global humanitarian response community. Another presentation described the MHM response in the Philippines to Typhoon Haiyan.

Publications and Videos 
Menstrual Hygiene Management Policy Brief. SHARE, January 2017. This policy brief summarizes previous research on MHM, defines knowledge gaps that still exist, and sets out clear recommendations for improving policy and programs globally.

Global Waters – Tackling Water Issues Lightens the Load for Garment Workers

Tackling Water Issues Lightens the Load for Garment Workers. Global Waters, May 2017.

The apparel industry employs millions of people throughout the world, a majority of whom are women. In many garment-producing countries women also bear the disproportionate burden for household responsibilities, particularly water collection.

Lack of access to safe drinking water and sanitation takes up their time, affects their health, lowers their income-earning potential, and stands in the way of caring for families and improving their education.

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India, one of the world’s major garment producers and exporters, will be the first focus country of the Women + Water Alliance. Photo Credit: Andre Fanthome

On World Water Day 2017, USAID and Gap Inc. announced the formation of the Women + Water Global Development Alliance to advance the health and well-being of women, families, and communities touched by the apparel industry.

The partnership will be USAID’s first water sector public-private partnership to focus on women as change agents by increasing their participation in decisionmaking and improving access to sustainable water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH).

Read the complete article.

Global Waters – Doubling Access to Safe Drinking Water: How Four African Countries Did It … and How Others Can, Too

Doubling Access to Safe Drinking Water: How Four African Countries Did It … and How Others Can, Too. Global Waters, May 2017.

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Rwanda encourages citizen participation in decision making at all levels of public administration under a practice called “Imihigo.” Photo Credit: HTSPE/DAI

In 1990, the East African nation of Ethiopia stood among the nations in most dire need of water development. Seventeen years of war had left its government and systems in disarray.

Only 11 percent of its more than 48 million people had access to piped or other improved water sources; the rest used unimproved sources such as unprotected wells and carted drums.

Predictably, Ethiopia and countries in similar straits suffered through high rates of communicable, pandemic, and vector-borne disease, child mortality, and other challenges tied to water, sanitation, and hygiene.

Today, Ethiopia’s population has surpassed 100 million, but the magnitude of the country’s success in providing drinking water to nearly half its people in 25 years — despite its diversity, size, and history of war and famine — cannot be overstated.

We must ask: How did Ethiopia and other countries in sub-Saharan Africa double (or more) the proportion of their people with sustainable access to safe drinking water? The answers should be applied to similar countries and their people so they can become water secure and answer the challenges tied to poor water, sanitation, and hygiene, or WASH.

The USAID Water for Africa through Leadership and Institutional Support(WALIS) project is doing just that.

Read the complete article.

Recent WASH research

Open Access

Underreporting of high-risk water and sanitation practices undermines progress on global targets. PLOS One, May 2017. Our analysis demonstrates the use of multiple options and widespread underreporting of high-risk practices. Mobile surveys offer a cost-effective and innovative platform to rapidly and repeatedly monitor critical development metrics.

Impact of an Intensive Perinatal Handwashing Promotion Intervention on Maternal Handwashing Behavior in the Neonatal Period: Findings from a Randomized Controlled Trial in Rural Bangladesh. BioMed Research International, April 2017. Intensively promoting handwashing with soap resulted in increased availability of soap and water at handwashing places, but only a modest increase in maternal handwashing with soap.

Investing in wastewater in Latin America can pay off. Water Blog, May 10, 2017. But recent advances in the sector present an opportunity to conduct basin-wide planning that promotes investments in wastewater that clearly identifies the downstream benefits of upstream investments, hence maximizing returns.

Drones in Humanitarian Action: A guide to the use of airborne systems in humanitarian crises, 2017. FSD. The most promising uses of drones include: Mapping; Delivering lightweight essential items to remote or hard to-access locations; Supporting damage assessments; Increasing situational awareness; Monitoring changes.

Abstracts

A critical mass analysis of community-based financing of water services in rural Kenya. Water Resources and Rural Development, May 2017. For the first time, this study applies critical mass theory to community waterpoint financial contributions in rural sub-Saharan Africa.

Recent News Items

Recent sanitation/WASH research

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Behavioral antecedents for handwashing in a low-income urban setting in Bangladesh: an exploratory study. BMC Public Health, May 2017. We argue that handwashing with soap is influenced by broader range of antecedents, many unrelated to fecal contamination, that indicate to people when and where to wash their hands. This exploratory study aimed to identify and characterize this broader range of handwashing antecedents for use in future handwashing promotion efforts.

Provision versus promotion to develop a handwashing station: the effect on desired handwashing behavior. BMC Public Health, May 2017. We conducted a three-month pilot intervention to evaluate two options for setting up handwashing stations: i) provide a handwashing station, or ii) help the family to make their own from available materials. Additionally, we assessed the feasibility of this intervention to be integrated with a child feeding program.

ABSTRACT

Impact of Community Health Clubs on Diarrhea and Anthropometry in Western Rwanda: Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial. FASEB Jnl, May 2017. (Abstract/order) – The CHC approach, as implemented in this setting in western Rwanda, had no impact on any main outcomes, but it had a positive impact on household water treatment and type and structure of sanitation facility. Our results raise questions about the value of implementing this intervention at scale.

Diet Quality, Water and Toilets Remain a Lingering Challenge for Undernutrition in India. FASEB Jnl, May 2017. (Abstract/order) – Using data from 2005–06, our regression analyses demonstrate a positive synergistic effect of better complementary feeding and better toilets for all anthropometric indicators, but not for improved drinking water or better ways of disposing child stools.

Evaluation of Student Handwashing Practices During a School-Based Hygiene Program in Rural Western Kenya, 2007. International Quarterly of Community Health Education, May 2017. (Abstract/order) – Teacher training and installation of water stations resulted in observed improvements in pupils’ hygiene, particularly when water stations were located

Consistency of Use and Effectiveness of Household Water Treatment Among Indian Households Claiming to Treat Their Water. Am Jnl Trop Med Hyg, online first. (Abstract/order) – Our findings raise questions about the value of the data gathered through the international monitoring of HWT as predictors of water quality in the home, as well as questioning the ability of HWT, as actually practiced by vulnerable populations, to reduce exposure to waterborne diseases.

Adding a Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Intervention and a Lipid-Based Nutrient Supplement to an Integrated Agriculture and Nutrition Program Improved the Nutritional Status of Young Burkinabé Children. FASEB Jnl, May 2017. (Abstract/order) – Adding WASH to the program in 2014 led to a significantly greater reduction in anemia, and including both WASH and LNS in communities with prior EHFP program exposure led to the largest and most diverse nutritional impacts including significant reductions in anemia, IDA and VAD. These results highlight the importance of addressing the multiple causes of undernutrition simultaneously, through multisectoral programs.