Category Archives: Resources

Recent WASH related research

Exploring Determinants of Handwashing with Soap in Indonesia: A Quantitative AnalysisInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health , September 2016. This study analyzes rural Indonesian households’ hygiene behaviors and attitudes to examine how motivations for handwashing, locations of handwashing space in the household, and handwashing moments are potential determinants of handwashing behavior.

Behaviour Centered Design (BCD): Towards an Applied Science of Behaviour ChangeHealth Psychology Review , August 2016. This paper positions BCD as the foundation of an applied science of behavior change and outlines a sequence of five steps required to design an intervention to change specific behaviors. The BCD approach has been shown to change hygiene, nutrition, and exercise-related behaviors and has the advantages of being applicable to product, service, or institutional design.

The Water Report 2016. Stockholm International Water Institute , August 2016. Published prior to World Water Week, this annual report was meant to inspire discussions at the meeting and bring topical issues to the fore. None is more prominent this year than the issue of migration and its link to water issues. Other topics covered include the 2030 Agenda and sustainable growth.

Asian Water Development Outlook (AWDO) 2016: Strengthening Water Security in Asia and the PacificAsian Development Bank (ADB) , September 2016. The result of rigorous analysis, AWDO 2016 provides a snapshot of the region’s water security status, enabling policymakers, financing institutions, and planners to make informed decisions on how to improve their performance in the water sector. The six-part report describes the water challenges the region is facing, presents the AWDO approach, and provides information on how water security can be increased.

Water and Sanitation Interlinkages Across the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable DevelopmentUnited Nations , August 2016. This brief analyzes the central role of water and sanitation and describes the interlinkages between the targets of Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 6 and those of other goals. The document emphasizes the mutually reinforcing nature of the interlinkages and the necessity for an integrated implementation approach, and also highlights the importance of mainstreaming water and sanitation in the policies and plans of other sectors.

Measuring Domestic Water Use: A Systematic Review of Methodologies that Measure Unmetered Water Use in Low-Income SettingsTropical Medicine and International Health , August 2016. More than 20 studies were included in this literature review of methods for measuring domestic water use in settings where water meters cannot be used. The review found no standardized methods for measuring unmetered water use and recommended that further research begin with pre-study observations during water collection periods to determine optimal methods for obtaining water use information in a survey.

Herd Protection from Drinking Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene InterventionsAmerican Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene , September 2016. Although cluster-randomized trials of WASH interventions have reported the total or overall efficacy of WASH interventions, they have not quantified the role of herd protection. Through a literature review and modeling, researchers have established that WASH interventions are likely to provide some level of herd protection.

Enteric Pathogens and Factors Associated with Acute Bloody Diarrhoea, KenyaBMC Infectious Diseases , September 2016. This study found that good personal hygiene practices such as washing hands after defecation and storing drinking water separate from water for other uses were key protective factors, while presence of coliform in the main water source was found to be a risk factor for bloody diarrhea. Implementation of WASH interventions is therefore key to prevention and control.

Sustainable Sanitation Alliance – Thematic Online Discussion: “Managing WASH in Schools – Is the Education Sector Ready?”

The Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA) is excited to announce the 10th Thematic Online Discussion on the topic of “Managing WASH in Schools – Is the Education Sector Ready?”

Starting on Monday, September 19, we invite you to join our discussion on the challenges of WASH in Schools (WinS) globally which is part of SuSanA’s Thematic Discussion Series (TDS).

The direct links of WinS to SDG2 (health), SDG6 (water and sanitation) and SDG4 (education) pose the chance for increased inter-sectoral cooperation. Thereby, the education sector’s leadership and management are critical to broad-scale implementation and success of WinS. Yet, how is the education sector taking WASH on board and how can the sector manage it? How does the reality look like in schools around the world? What does it take for better-managed WinS? What shifts/changes are necessary to see the situation change?

Building on the SuSanA Working Group 7 (Community, Rural & Schools) meeting during the Stockholm Water Week 2016, we would like to address these and other questions in order to get a better understanding of the challenges and needs of the education sector to successfully manage WASH in schools.

In particular, we will structure our discussion along two topics – (1) Policy Issues on the Regional and Global Level and (2) Implementation Level/Matters of Implementation.

For both topics, experts from both the WASH and the education sector will provide leadership, food for thought and a profound insight into the topic. Questions raised by Forum Users will also be addressed.

Discussing WASH in school and the education sector’s role and potential for leadership, we propose the following schedule:

Theme I – Policy Issues on the Regional and Global Level (September 19-30)
Theme II – Implementation Level (September 21-30)

We look forward to interested participants and an enriching discussion on WinS.

Kind regards,

Antonio S.D. on behalf of the Sustainable Sanitation Alliance

SNV publications on urban sanitation

SNV’s Urban Sanitation & Hygiene for Health and Development (USHHD) programme works with municipal governments to develop safe, sustainable city-wide services. The programme integrates insights in WASH governance, investment and finance, behavioural change communication and management of the sanitation service chain. We engage private sector, civil society organisations, users and local authorities to improve public health and development opportunities in their city.

As part of our USHHD programme, we have a long term partnership with the Institute for Sustainable Futures, University of Technology Sydney focused on knowledge and learning to improve practice and contribute to the WASH sector knowledge and evidence. Our recent collaborative efforts have resulted in the following papers:

Are we doing the right thing? Critical questioning for city sanitation planning (2016)
Cities are clear examples of complex and rapidly changing systems, particularly in countries where urban population growth and economic development continue apace, and where the socio-political context strongly influences the directions taken. The concept of double-loop learning can be usefully applied to city sanitation planning. This paper prompts practitioners, policy-makers and development agencies to reflect on their approaches to city sanitation planning and the assumptions that underlie them.
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Exploring legal and policy aspects of urban sanitation and hygiene (2016)
During 2012-2014, SNV did four country reviews of legal arrangements for urban sanitation and hygiene in Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh and Indonesia. Based on these experiences, this guide was developed to provide support and guidance for WASH practitioners undertaking a scan of legal arrangements to inform the design (use of frameworks and tools) and delivery (advocacy for improvements) of urban sanitation and hygiene programs.
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A guide to septage transfer stations (2016)
Septage transfer stations have the potential to significantly reduce the amount of faecal sludge entering the environment by providing a local solution for septage disposal. Localised transfer stations shorten the time required for local operators to collect and transport septage, and they will be able to use smaller vacuum tanks that can navigate the densely populated residential areas. This guide provides information on the salient aspects of selecting, designing, building, operating and maintaining a septage transfer station.
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Financing sanitation for cities and towns (2014)
Planning and financing for sanitation in cities and towns in developing countries is often ad hoc and piecemeal. Stronger capacity to plan financing for sanitation infrastructure (and services) for the long term will lead to better outcomes. Planning for adequate long-term services requires consideration of the complete sanitation service chain over the lifecycle of the associated service infrastructure. This paper focuses on access to the upfront finance and other lumpy finance needs for initial investment and for rehabilitation and/or replacement as physical systems approach their end of life.
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For further information about these papers or the organisations, please contact:
Antoinette Kome (SNV) – akome@snv.org
Juliet Willetts (ISF) on Juliet.willetts@uts.edu.au

IRC WASH Toolkit

tools_ghana

IRC has compiled a growing repository of tools and guidance for strengthening water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) service delivery.

Achieving the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) of universal access to WASH by 2030 requires a systems approach, This means tackling all dimensions such as monitoring systems to see whether services are delivered; financing frameworks that define who pays for what and how; and procurement mechanisms for infrastructure development.

The toolkit is organised around the two related goals of delivering services and delivering change.

IRC toolbox

The toolkit covers both water supply and sanitation. Sanitation and hygiene-specific tools have been grouped under the sanitation and behaviour change blocks.

Included are best practices, case studies and approaches developed and tested in IRC’s work with governments, NGOs and other partners in over 20 countries.

The tools come from big, multi-country initiatives, such as WASHCost, Triple-S and WASHTech, as well as more focused pieces of work, such as our partnership with the government of Ethiopia to develop guidelines for self-supply.

We are in the early stages of development, so for now the toolkit is a beta product. We encourage you to use and build on our work. We do, however, request you to acknowledge the source and share your experience with us. We also welcome your feedback as we continue to expand and refine the toolkit. Please send your comments, questions and experiences to info@ircwash.org.

The toolkit is available at: www.ircwash.org/wash-tools

 

Don’t think of treatment plants: building factories to meet the sanitation SDGs

Rwanda  - Pivot fecal sludge treatment 1

Pivot Works factory in Kigali, Rwanda. From left to right: Fecal sludge receiving tank, flocculation tanks, mechanical dewatering machine. Photo: Ashley Muspratt

4,900 days from now, in 2030, the Sustainable Development Goals will expire.  If that feels like a long time, consider the work ahead.  And by work, I dare not attempt to wrap my head around all 17 goals; I refer specifically to the WASH goal – SDG #6 – and even more specifically to the sanitation targets.

From my admittedly invested perch – I run a sanitation company – the most exciting thing about transitioning from the MDGs to the SDGs is the belated inclusion of treatment.  There’s finally recognition that “improved sanitation” without treatment is not improved sanitation.  The WASH community’s new mandate: “halving the proportion of untreated wastewater and substantially increasing recycling and safe reuse globally” (SDG 6.3).  But consider that the urban population still requiring “safely managed sanitation” today stands at 3.214 billion [1]. Serving them entails expanding safe management, i.e., some form of treatment, to 625,000 people each day for the next 4,900 days.  That’s basically a city a day.

How can we achieve such a massive expansion of safe fecal sludge and wastewater management?  For starters, let’s stop building treatment plants. Heresy? There’s a better way.

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USAID’s Global Waters, August 2016

The August 2016 issue of USAID’s Global Waters is now online and includes the articles listed below. usaid

Pipeline to Progress  – The recent opening of a major new USAID-funded water pipeline is pumping new life into area homes and businesses — carrying with it the promise of a more dependable water supply for 260,000 residents of the southern West Bank

West Africa Water Supply, Sanitation & Hygiene Program – Our Real Impact series takes an in-depth look at USAID’s WA-WASH program and its work in the West African countries of Burkina Faso, Ghana, and Niger.

Improving Water Services for a More Water Secure Middle East – Global Water Coordinator Christian Holmes reports on his Middle East visit and the work being done to meet regional water needs to both maintain public health and produce food.

Nader Al-Khateeb on West Bank Water Security – Al-Khateeb tells Global Waters Radio about the recent opening of the Deir Sha’ar pipeline in the southern West Bank and how it is improving water security for 260,000 residents.

Emily Rand on Improved Child Feces Management – Rand discusses key findings from recent research  produced by the World Bank and UNICEF in the growing public health field of child feces management.

Annabell Waititu on Gender and Water Management in Kenya – Waititu talks to Global Waters Radio about why it is important for women to become involved in water management decisions beyond the household.

Poor sanitation cost global economy US$ 223 billion in 2015

True cost poor sanitation cover

Lack of access to sanitation cost the global economy US$222.9 billion in 2015, up from US$182.5 billion in 2010, a rise of 22% in just five years, according to a new report released on 25 August 2016 by LIXIL Group Corporation (“LIXIL Group”), a global leader in housing and building materials, products and services.

The true cost of poor sanitation, published in collaboration with WaterAid and Oxford Economics, which conducted economic modeling to develop up-to-date estimations of the global cost of poor sanitation, brings to light the high economic burden in low-income and lower-middle income countries.

More than half (55%) of all costs of poor sanitation are a consequence of premature deaths, rising to 75% in Africa. A further quarter are due to treating related diseases, and other costs are related to lower productivity as a result of illnesses and time lost due to lack of access to a private toilet.

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