Category Archives: Resources

SHARE – PhD in Brief: How effective is sanitation in preventing environmental contamination?

In this video Dr Tarique Md Nurul Huda answers a couple of questions about his SHARE-funded PhD which explored the role of sanitation in peventing contamination of the domestic environment and protecting health in Bangladesh.

For more info on his PhD, visit: http://www.shareresearch.org/tarique-…

Final reports from the USAID WASHplus Project

The USAID WASHplus project ended on July 15, 2016. Below are links to some of its final reports on sanitation, WASH in schools, WASH and nutrition and other topics. Additional WASHplus reports and resources are still available on the WASHplus website.

WASHplus End of Project Report: What We Did and Why It Matters – The report provides a summary of the key cross-cutting themes that informed the six-year WASHplus activity; describes WASH and HAP country-level activities; and includes links to tools, stories, learning briefs, reports, and other resources that provide a full picture of project experience and learning. washplus

Capitalizing on WASHplus Project Achievements: Innovative Sanitation Strategies Implemented by WASHplus in Mali
– WASHplus developed an integrated WASH and nutrition program in the Mopti region to increase the supply of appropriate, affordable, and sustainable WASH solutions, increase demand for low cost sanitation, and improve sanitation and hygiene practices and nutrition. This document focuses on WASHplus’s sanitation approach.

Essential WASH Actions: Draft – Essential WASH Actions are practices that contribute significantly to disease reduction and improved health outcomes. This proposed draft covers safe feces handling and disposal, optimal handwashing, and treatment and safe storage of drinking water.

Continue reading

Can you spend too much on sanitation?

The decision to divert funding from water to sanitation turned sour when drought struck India.

IMG_5450.JPG

Ledger. Uttarakhand, India. Photo: IRC

A budget tracking study in India revealed that the shift of policy focus from water to sanitation has resulted in a cut in government spending on rural water supply. This was a cause of concern because at the time of the study (August-December 2015) six of the seven states reviewed were reeling under severe drought.

A Parliamentary Standing Committee report released on 6 May 2016 stated that the government would be unable to achieve its 2017 target of providing 50% rural households with piped water. The media accused the government of starving the National Rural Drinking Water Programme of funds, while at the same time increasing funding for Prime Minister Modi’s flagship sanitation programme “Swachh Bharat”. The government has even introduced an additional 0.5% “Swachh Bharat” service tax.

The Centre for Budget and Governance Accountability (CBGA) is presenting their budget tracking study on 26 July 2016 in Delhi as part of the WASH Dialogues series of events. WASH Dialogues are an initiative of IRC and TARU Leading Edge. CBGA’s presentation will focus on the institutional and procedural bottlenecks that are constraining public expenditure in the water and sanitation sector.

For more information on the event “Tracking policy and budgetary commitments for drinking water and sanitation in the new fiscal architecture in India” go the IRC Events page.

For more on budget tracking see:

This news item was originally published on the IRC website.

Monitoring Africa’s sanitation commitments

IRC helps AMCOW develop a new process to monitor the N’gor declaration

At the 2016 Africa Water Week, civil society called on the African Ministers’ Council on Water (AMCOW) to honour the region’s commitments on water, sanitation and hygiene, including those agreed in the 2015 N’gor declaration. The four partner organisations in Watershed – empowering citizens, Akvo, IRC, Simavi and Wetlands International, were among those that endorsed the collective statement submitted to AMCOW by the African Network for Water (ANEW).

Progress especially on sanitation has so far been poor; only 4% between from 2000 to 2015, according to Al-hassan Adam from End Water Poverty. A recent IRC/WSUP finance brief stated that only eight African countries provide data on sanitation expenditure. All of them are falling behind on their N’gor declaration commitment to spend 0.5% of their Gross Domestic Product (GDP) on sanitation. Exerting pressure to speed up progress on sanitation is an obvious task for those civil society organisations (CSOs) that Watershed aims to support.

Next to lobbying AMCOW to honour its sanitation commitments, IRC is also advising the ministerial council on the development of a new process to monitor the N’gor declaration. The aim of the new monitoring process is to create reflective dialogue processes at country and subregional levels and strengthen mechanisms for accountability to citizens and political leaders informed by evidence.

So far a Regional Action Plan has been developed, and indicators and scoring criteria have been reviewed through a series of sub-regional consultations led by AMCOW in Nairobi, Dakar and Johannesburg in May and June 2016. See below an example of an indicator with scoring criteria.

For more information, read the background paper prepared by Alana Potter.

Ngor indicator typology

This news item was originally published on the IRC website.

The Dawn of a Sanitation Revolution in India – World Bank

The sanitation campaign in India is helping Rajasthan become a top performing state in ending open defecation. The Chief Minister of Rajasthan declared sanitation as one of the state’s top development priorities, with a target of eliminating open defecation by 2018.

To bring this vision to fruition, an innovative Community Led Total Sanitation Campaign (CLTS) was launched in many districts with the leadership of district collectors.

The approach focuses on crucial issues: Behavior Change and Demand Creation. From Health Centers, to Schools, to door-to-door visits, the message of sanitation and hygiene was effectively communicated.

Health is blooming, one home at a time. One village at a time. And Rajasthan is on course to becoming open defecation free.

Learning from Sustained Success: How Community-Driven Initiatives to Improve Urban Sanitation Can Meet the Challenges

Learning from Sustained Success: How Community-Driven Initiatives to Improve Urban Sanitation Can Meet the Challenges. World Development, July 2016.

Authors: Gordon McGranahan, Diana Mitlin.

Past research by one of the authors of this paper has identified four key institutional challenges that community-driven initiatives to improve sanitation in deprived urban settlements face: the collective action challenge of improving community sanitation; the coproduction challenge of working with formal service providers to dispose of the sanitary waste safely; the affordability challenge of reconciling the affordable with what is acceptable to both users and local authorities; and the tenure challenge of preventing housing insecurity from undermining residents’ willingness to commit to sanitary improvement.

In this article we examine how two well-documented, relatively successful and longstanding initiatives, the Orangi Pilot Project and an Alliance of Indian partners, met these challenges. They were met through social innovation, but also through the choice and development of sanitation technologies (simplified sewers for OPP and community toilet blocks for the Indian Alliance) that provided traction for the social innovations. We also explore more recent efforts by civil society partnerships in four African cities, demonstrating some of the difficulties they have faced in trying to overcome these challenges. No equivalent models have emerged, though there has been considerable progress against particular challenges in particular places.

These findings confirm the importance of the challenges, and indicate that these are not just challenges for social organization, but also for technology design and choice. For example, the problem with household pit latrines is not that they cannot physically be improved to sufficiently, but that they are not well-suited to the social, economic and political challenges of sanitary improvement at scale. The findings also indicate that a low economic status and a tendency to treat sanitation as a private good not suitable for public support also makes the sanitation challenges difficult to overcome.

Links to selected 2015 WEDC conference papers on sanitation

Links to selected 2015 WEDC conference papers on sanitation

  1. A mobile based system for monitoring usage of household latrines and hygiene practices in Madhya Pradesh, India * (2015)
  2. Nayak, V.
  3. Acceptability of urban water, sanitation, electricity and transport servicesÊ * (2015)
    Smout, I.
  4. Access to emergency sanitation for Pakistani women: a case study in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan * (2015)
    Ahmed, W.
  5. Accessibility audit for mainstreaming the rights of the persons with disabilities in Bangladesh * (2015)
    Ahmed, S.
  6. Achieving sustainable operation and maintenance of water and sanitation facilities: findings from selected primary schools in northern Uganda * (2015)
    Namata, T.
  7. Alternatives in ecological sanitation: a comparison of systems in Uganda * (2015)
    Kamuteera, E.
  8. An update of themes and trends in urban community-led total sanitation projects * (2015)
    Myers, J.
  9. Attitudes and practises with regard to emptying of onsite systems in Maputo, Mozambique * (2015)
    BŠuerl, M.
  10. Barriers to access water and sanitation services by the urban poor in larger towns of Madhya Pradesh, India: an assessment of citizens’ perception * (2015)
    Kumar, C
  11. Behaviour change determinants: the key to successful WASH strategies * (2015)
    Egreteau, D.

Continue reading