Category Archives: Resources

Journal of Water, Sanitation & Hygiene for Development, September 2017

Below are links to open access articles in the September 2017; Vol. 7, No. 3 issue.

Editorial – Limited services? The role of shared sanitation in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development
Authors: Barbara Evans, Andrés Hueso, Richard Johnston, Guy Norman, Eddy Pérez, Tom Slaymaker and Sophie Trémolet

The role of packaged water in meeting global targets on improved water access
Authors: Sridhar Vedachalam, Luke H. MacDonald, Elizabeth Omoluabi, Funmilola OlaOlorun, Easmon Otupiri and Kellogg J. Schwab

Investigation on microbial inactivation and urea decomposition in human urine during thermal storage
Authors: Xiaoqin Zhou, Yajie Li, Zifu Li, Yue Xi, Sayed Mohammad Nazim Uddin and Yang Zhang

Cultural preferences for the methods and motivation of sanitation infrastructure development
Authors: Miriam E. Hacker and Jessica A. Kaminsky

Sanitation value chains in low density settings in Indonesia and Vietnam: impetus for a rethink to achieve pro-poor outcomes
Authors: Juliet Willetts, Anna Gero, Akhmad Akbar Susamto, Ryan Sanjaya, Thanh Doan Trieu, Janina Murta and Naomi Carrard

 

The impact of sanitation on infectious disease and nutritional status: A systematic review and meta-analysis

The impact of sanitation on infectious disease and nutritional status: A systematic review and meta-analysis. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
Volume 220, Issue 6, August 2017, Pages 928-949.

Authors: Matthew Freeman, Joshua Garn, Gloria Sclar, et al.

Background – Sanitation aims to sequester human feces and prevent exposure to fecal pathogens. More than 2.4 billion people worldwide lack access to improved sanitation facilities and almost one billion practice open defecation. We undertook systematic reviews and meta-analyses to compile the most recent evidence on the impact of sanitation on diarrhea, soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections, trachoma, schistosomiasis, and nutritional status assessed using anthropometry.

Methods and findings – We updated previously published reviews by following their search strategy and eligibility criteria. We searched from the previous review’s end date to December 31, 2015. We conducted meta-analyses to estimate pooled measures of effect using random-effects models and conducted subgroup analyses to assess impact of different levels of sanitation services and to explore sources of heterogeneity. We assessed risk of bias and quality of the evidence from intervention studies using the Liverpool Quality Appraisal Tool (LQAT) and Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach, respectively. A total of 171 studies met the review’s inclusion criteria, including 64 studies not included in the previous reviews. Overall, the evidence suggests that sanitation is protective against diarrhea, active trachoma, some STH infections, schistosomiasis, and height-for-age, with no protective effect for other anthropometric outcomes. The evidence was generally of poor quality, heterogeneity was high, and GRADE scores ranged from very low to high.

Conclusions – This review confirms positive impacts of sanitation on aspects of health. Evidence gaps remain and point to the need for research that rigorously describes sanitation implementation and type of sanitation interventions.

 

Recent WASH research – September 7, 2017

RECENT USAID WASH-RELATED PUBLICATIONS

OPEN ACCESS

ABSTRACT/ORDER

 

Emergency WASH – Water Currents

Emergency WASH – Water Currents, September 5, 2017.

The current cholera crisis in Yemen is just the latest example of the need for practical evidence-based recommendations and updated research on WASH in emergency settings.This issue focuses on case studies, recent research, and innovative approaches to implementing WASH services in emergencies, and includes links to recent publications about water treatment, menstrual hygiene management, container-based sanitation, among other topics. Also featured are links to relevant websites and select WASH news items, including several on the cholera epidemic in Yemen. watercurrentsissue

Publications and Videos 
WASH Interventions in Disease Outbreak ResponseOxfam, February 2017. This synthesis identifies, combines, and evaluates existing evidence from 47 studies on the impacts of 10 different WASH interventions during disease outbreaks in 51 humanitarian contexts in 19 low and middle-income countries.

Short-Term WASH Interventions in Emergency Responses in Low and Middle-Income CountriesInternational Initiative for Impact Evaluation, February 2017. WASH interventions are used in nearly all emergency contexts, but limited evidence is available to support best practices and effective use. This literature review synthesizes findings from 106 studies to assess the effectiveness of 13 specific interventions.

Read the complete issue.

WSSCC Releases New Global Sanitation Fund Equality and Non-Discrimination Study

How can WASH programmes leave no one behind, as called for in the Sustaionable Development Goals? WSSCC’s new study, Scoping and Diagnosis of the Global Sanitation Fund’s Approach to Equality and Non-Discrimination, helps answer this question.

The study reveals that many people who may be considered disadvantaged have benefited positively from WSSCC’s Global Sanitation Fund (GSF)-supported programmes, particularly in open defecation free verified areas. In addition, a range of positive outcomes and impacts related to empowerment, safety, convenience, ease of use, self-esteem, health, dignity, an improved environment and income generation were reported by people who may be considered disadvantaged.

EQND-Article-Slider
Photo Credit: WSSCC

However, the study finds that GSF has not yet systematically integrated EQND throughout the programme cycle. Across all countries, there are people who have either fallen through the net or whose lives have become more difficult after being unduly pressured, or after taking out loans and selling assets to build toilets. More proactive attention is needed throughout the programme cycle to build on current successes and ensure that people are not left behind or harmed through the actions or omissions of supported programmes.

GSF is in the process of putting the study’s recommendations into practice through revised guidelines, minimum standards, practical tools and other mechanisms.

Download the full study, plus a summarized version with GSF reflections, and annexes

Global Handwashing Day 2017 Planner’s Guide

Global Handwashing Day 2017 Planner’s Guide

Updated for 2017, this Planner’s Guide will help you plan a successful Global Handwashing Day event. Planners-Guide-Cover-300x233

From providing step-by-step instructions to easy-to-use tools, the Global Handwashing Day 2017 Planner’s Guide explores the importance of handwashing with soap and features:

Spotlights on current big ideas in handwashing, such as:

  • the connection between hygiene and gender (pg. 17),
  • the importance of handwashing for a healthy start (pg. 22), and
  • the importance of sustaining handwashing with soap habits (pg. 29)
  • Tools to help planners assess the impact of your campaign (pg. 52)
  • Suggestions for promoting hygiene beyond October 15 (pg. 72)

The Global Handwashing Day 2017 Social Media Toolkit is also available, and in English, French & Spanish.

Recent WASH research – August 30, 2017

3ie Systematic reviews & Scoping papers

Promoting handwashing and sanitation behaviour change in low- and middle-income countries A mixed-method systematic review, June 2017. This systematic review shows which promotional approaches are effective in changing handwashing and sanitation behaviour and which implementation factors affect the success or failure of such interventions.

Promoting latrine use in India, August 2017. The major barriers to use appear to be poor latrine quality and certain inhibiting knowledge, attitudes and practices (e.g. perceived convenience and pleasure of open defecation, despite knowing the health consequences). The importance of the design and location of the latrine appear to carry significant implications for use.

Others

Multipathway Quantitative Assessment of Exposure to Fecal Contamination for Young Children in Low-Income Urban Environments in Accra, Ghana: The SaniPath Analytical Approach. AJTMH, August 21, 2017. Although we observed variation in estimated exposure (108–1016 CFU/day for Escherichia coli) between different age groups and neighborhoods, the greatest contribution was consistently from food. Hands played a pivotal role in fecal microbe transfer, linking environmental sources to oral ingestion.

Clean and Green: a new implementation framework for sustainable rural sanitation. SEI, 2017. Clean and Green is the first rural sanitation implementation framework that explicitly addresses efficient local resource management, including waste reuse, in parallel with sanitation and hygiene promotion. The framework centres on certifications to reward progress along parallel Clean (risk management) and Green (resource management) tracks.

Black Soldier Fly Biowaste Processing. EAWAG, 2017. The grown larvae make an excellent protein source in animal feed and their sale can, thus, contribute to lower treatment cost and to a lucrative business with organic waste.

Beyond Scarcity: Water Security in the Middle East and North Africa. World Bank, August 2017. This report shows that achieving water security means much more than coping with water scarcity. It means managing water resources in a sustainable, efficient, and equitable way.

Effectiveness of table top water pitcher filters to remove arsenic from drinking water. Environmental Research, October 2017. Thus, the ZeroWater® pitcher filter is a cost effective and short-term solution to remove arsenic from drinking water and its use reduces plastic waste associated with bottled water.