Category Archives: Publications

Hygiene needs of incontinence sufferers

A desk-based review of how WASH actors can better address the hygiene needs of people living with urinary and/or faecal incontinence in developing countries was conducted with funding from WaterAid UK/SHARE in late 2015.

Incontinence products for men

Incontinence products for men. Illustration from the report

The report outlines what incontinence is and how people generally manage their incontinence, as well as relevant experiences and guidance from within the development and humanitarian spheres (related to incontinence as well as other areas such as menstrual hygiene managemant (MHM) and inclusive WASH). The report also provides recommendations on how to better support the hygiene and WASH needs of those people suffering from incontinence.

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Do donor restrictions affect sustainability of water and sanitation interventions? Results from a Pilot Survey

Do donor restrictions affect sustainability of water and sanitation interventions? Results from a Pilot Survey, 2015. Improve International.

During August-September 2015, Improve International prepared and distributed a survey via Survey Monkey. Out of 14 questions, five allowed open-ended responses, six were multiple-choice and three were yes/no. Three multiple-choice questions allowed for more than one response and seven questions contained comments sections.

The survey was intended for international development organizations (for-profit or not-for profit), civic groups, universities, volunteer groups, or community-based organizations that raise funds from US-based donors to implement or fund water, sanitation, and hygiene interventions.

Sanitation and child health in India

Sanitation and child health in India, 2015. Britta Augsburg (IFS) and Paul Rodriguez-Lesmes (UCL).

Our study contributes to the understanding of key drivers of stunted growth, a factor widely recognized as major impediment to human capital development. Specifically, we examine the effects of sanitation coverage and usage on child height for age in a semi-urban setting in Northern India.

We use instrumental variables to control for endogeneity of sanitation usage coverage. We find that sanitation coverage plays a significant and positive role in height growth during the first years of life.

WHO estimates of the global burden of foodborne diseases

WHO estimates of the global burden of foodborne diseases, 2015. World Health Organization.

Foodborne diseases are an important cause of morbidity and mortality, and a significant impediment to socioeconomic development worldwide, but the full extent and burden of unsafe food, and especially the burden arising from chemical and parasitic contaminants, has been unknown.

Foodborne_diseases

Precise information on the burden of foodborne diseases can adequately inform policy-makers and to allocate appropriate resources for food safety control and intervention efforts.

This report, resulting from the WHO Initiative to Estimate the Global Burden of Foodborne Diseases and prepared by the WHO Foodborne Disease Burden Epidemiology Reference Group (FERG), provides the first estimates of global foodborne disease incidence, mortality, and disease burden in terms of Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs).

IIED – Building towards a future in which urban sanitation “leaves no one behind”

Building towards a future in which urban sanitation “leaves no one behind,” 2015. Diana Mitlin, IIED.

Full text

Plans to improve access to sanitation in towns and cities of the global South are hampered by multiple challenges. One is a lack of reliable information. In particular, global and national-level data often diverge from data on particular settlements, collected by inhabitants of those settlements themselves. Local data highlight the inadequacy of living conditions – and in so doing evidence the difficulties in securing improvements. Another challenge lies in the setting of standards around acceptable sanitation. At a global level, for instance, shared sanitation is not considered part of “improved” sanitation. Yet the reality for many low-income urban populations is that communal sanitation can be hygienic, cost-effective and locally acceptable.

The difficulties in reaching a consensus around data and standards point to the importance of diverse approaches to increasing and improving sanitation, including considering both on-site and off-site solutions.

They also highlight how crucial it is for the planning and implementation of all such solutions to be inclusive of those often missing from global debates, such as the low-income urban groups that cannot afford substantial sanitation spending. Financial and political commitments, drawing on the circumstances and approaches articulated by low-income groups themselves, will be key to securing a future in which everyone has access to the sanitation they need.

Testing CLTS Approaches for Scalability: Nepal Learning Brief

Nepal UNC

Pour Flush Toilet in Nepal. Photo Credit: Vidya Venkataramanan

Plan International supports Community-led Total Sanitation (CLTS) implementation in a number of districts in Nepal. In this learning brief, we review Plan International Nepal’s CLTS activities. We found government targets and definitions to be ambitious while decentralized planning allowed a focus on community-led processes. Plan International and other sanitation practitioners can support CLTS outcomes by providing post-triggering training and technical support to community volunteers, focusing on achieving gradual, yet sustained outcomes in program areas, and continuing to work with local governments to ensure that financing mechanisms for the poor are locally developed and equitable.

Link to learning brief: https://waterinstitute.unc.edu/files/2015/11/learning-series-nepal-learning-brief-2015-11.pdf

Citation: Community-led Total Sanitation in Nepal: Findings from an Implementation Case Study. Venkataramanan, Vidya, Alexandra Shannon, and Jennifer Bogle. 2015. Chapel Hill, USA: The Water Institute at UNC.

New week NEW BRIEF! Finance Brief N. 8: “A few cents on your water bill: Tana’s (Anatanarivo) surcharge system” By Sylvie Ramanantsoa, Julie Ranaivo and Guy Norman

Tana 001    In Madagascar’s capital Antananarivo (Tana), water bills include various surcharges designed to help finance water and sanitation. In recent years, Water & Sanitation for the Urban Poor (WSUP) has been working with local government and with the utility JIRAMA to optimise the use of these revenues to support water supply improvements in low-income communities. This brief describes how this interesting system works, and considers how it might be further developed.

FB008 Tana fonds de travaux_Page_1

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