Category Archives: Publications

Poor sanitation cost global economy US$ 223 billion in 2015

True cost poor sanitation cover

Lack of access to sanitation cost the global economy US$222.9 billion in 2015, up from US$182.5 billion in 2010, a rise of 22% in just five years, according to a new report released on 25 August 2016 by LIXIL Group Corporation (“LIXIL Group”), a global leader in housing and building materials, products and services.

The true cost of poor sanitation, published in collaboration with WaterAid and Oxford Economics, which conducted economic modeling to develop up-to-date estimations of the global cost of poor sanitation, brings to light the high economic burden in low-income and lower-middle income countries.

More than half (55%) of all costs of poor sanitation are a consequence of premature deaths, rising to 75% in Africa. A further quarter are due to treating related diseases, and other costs are related to lower productivity as a result of illnesses and time lost due to lack of access to a private toilet.

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Final reports from the USAID WASHplus Project

The USAID WASHplus project ended on July 15, 2016. Below are links to some of its final reports on sanitation, WASH in schools, WASH and nutrition and other topics. Additional WASHplus reports and resources are still available on the WASHplus website.

WASHplus End of Project Report: What We Did and Why It Matters – The report provides a summary of the key cross-cutting themes that informed the six-year WASHplus activity; describes WASH and HAP country-level activities; and includes links to tools, stories, learning briefs, reports, and other resources that provide a full picture of project experience and learning. washplus

Capitalizing on WASHplus Project Achievements: Innovative Sanitation Strategies Implemented by WASHplus in Mali
– WASHplus developed an integrated WASH and nutrition program in the Mopti region to increase the supply of appropriate, affordable, and sustainable WASH solutions, increase demand for low cost sanitation, and improve sanitation and hygiene practices and nutrition. This document focuses on WASHplus’s sanitation approach.

Essential WASH Actions: Draft – Essential WASH Actions are practices that contribute significantly to disease reduction and improved health outcomes. This proposed draft covers safe feces handling and disposal, optimal handwashing, and treatment and safe storage of drinking water.

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Emerging Issues of Environmental Concern: UNEP Frontiers 2016 Report

Emerging Issues of Environmental Concern: UNEP Frontiers 2016 Report, 2016. UNEP.

The UNEP Frontiers 2016 edition presents six emerging issues. It highlights, for example, that the global significance of the financial sector should not confine itself only to enhancing global economic growth, but also to advancing environmental sustainability. The financial sector has a crucial role to play in investing in new low-carbon, resource efficient and environmentally sound assets, and shifting capital away from traditional assets that have high impacts on the environment. The report presents a number of emerging financial initiatives led by the financial sector as innovative solutions to sustainability challenges.

There is a worldwide increase in disease emergence and epidemics particularly from zoonoses – diseases that can be passed on between animals and humans. The report illustrates how the emergence and re-emergence of zoonotic diseases are closely interlinked with the health of ecosystems. The risk of disease emergence and amplification increases with the intensification of human activities surrounding and encroaching into natural habitats, enabling pathogens in wildlife reservoirs to spill over to livestock and humans.

The recent years have seen a growing presence of plastic pollution in the aquatic environment, particularly in form of microplastics. While stakeholders are increasing their efforts to reduce the use of microplastics through innovative approaches and policy change, the scientific community is racing to understand the level of exposure and physiological impacts of microplastic contaminants on various organisms, as well as the risk to human health through consumption of contaminated food.

The UNEP Frontiers report also highlights two critical issues associated with climate change. The issue of loss and damage to ecosystems due to changing climate has risen to global attention in recent years, and has led to the establishment of the Warsaw international mechanism for loss and damage associated with climate change impacts. The report introduces a number of case studies on recent sudden- and slow-onset events that have caused losses and damages to ecosystems and human systems, and presents a range of risk management tools needed to avoid harm.

 

 

Last issue of the WASHplus Weekly

Issue 224 | July 8, 2016 | Focus on WASHplus Project Publications

Dear readers, this is the last issue of the WASHplus Weekly from the WASHplus project. We thank you for your continued support and interest in this resource. We know the Weekly has been highly valued and a new version of this product will make its debut in July, with support from USAID’s Water Team. Please stay tuned! 

These documents can be downloaded at: www.washplus.org/resources
 
By Country

Bangladesh

Understanding Consumer Preference and Willingness to Pay for Improved Cookstoves in Bangladesh, 2013. This study uses qualitative and quantitative methods to explore consumer perceptions of five of the most promising improved cookstoves potentially available for distribution in Bangladesh.

A brief of the above study is also available: What Do Cooks Want? What Will They Pay? A Study of Improved Cookstoves in Bangladesh, 2014.

WASHplus Behavior Change Strategy: Hygiene Promotion Guidelines for Bangladesh, 2013. The WASHplus activity aims to increase the consistent and correct practice of a suite of water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) behaviors in order to see related improvements in child growth and overall household resiliency and health.

WASHplus Baseline Assessment of WASH Situation in Southwestern Bangladesh,2013.

Bangladesh Controlled Cooking Tests (CCTs) of Seven Improved Cookstoves Plus Traditional Stove as Baseline, 2014.

Improving Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene in Southwest Bangladesh: An Overview, 2014. An overview of the three-year WASHplus program, implemented through WaterAid and local NGO partners, to improve WASH in southwestern Bangladesh.

Assessing Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene (WASH) in Southwestern Bangladesh: Project Completion Report, 2016. A comprehensive report on the success of the recently closed four-year project that aimed to address the underlying causes of inadequate WASH conditions in hard-to-reach areas of southwestern Bangladesh.

Benin

Peace Corps Benin WASH Tools and Training Resources, 2014. French language training materials on household water treatment, community-led total sanitation, and WASH in schools.

What is the USAID/WASHplus Benin Urban Hygiene Improvement Program? 2015. This brief provides an overview of the pilot hygiene improvement program in two of Cotonou’s most neglected peri-urban neighborhoods, Agbato and Enagnon. The program focuses primarily on handwashing with soap and safe household drinking water.

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PMA2020 WASH Brief on Indonesia

Performance Monitoring and Accountability (PMA2020) uses innovative mobile technology to support low-cost, rapid-turnaround surveys to monitor key indicators for family planning and WASH. indonesia-pma-4

The project is implemented by local university and research organizations in 10 countries, deploying a cadre of female resident enumerators trained in mobile-assisted data collection at 6-month and 12-month intervals.

PMA2020 WASH briefs provide a two-page snapshot of key WASH indicators including number of household water sources, use of unimproved water sources and sanitation facilities, as well as percent of population using open defecation as a main or regular practice.

Our latest WASH brief from Indonesia is based off of a nationally representative survey conducted between June and August 2015.

For more information on PMA2020 WASH please visit http://www.pma2020.org, or contact Alec Shannon at ashannon@jhu.edu.

 

A Community Approach to Better Public Health in Rural Liberia

A Community Approach to Better Public Health in Rural Liberia. Global Waters, June 2016

Liberia is no stranger to difficult times, having weathered a devastating Ebola outbreak and now struggling through a slow economic recovery. Lost amid the headlines from these events is the story of Liberia’s quiet public health victories.

liberia

Residents of Lofa County’s Vahun district in Liberia gather to discuss strategy for sustaining recent local sanitation improvements. Photo Credit: Global Communities

Half of Liberia’s 4.5 million people live in the countryside and roughly the same amount practice open defecation.

This practice has jeopardized public health by facilitating the spread of diseases that cause diarrhea, Liberia’s sixth leading cause of death and the primary cause of childhood morbidity and mortality.

However, thanks to two programs that championed community-led sanitation improvements, USAID has now helped 1,500 Liberian communities achieve open defecation-free (ODF) status — fueling optimism about continued public health improvements in the near term

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DFID should ensure sustainability of its WASH programmes – independent review

Richard Gledhill  ICAI

Richard Gledhill

By Richard Gledhill, ICAI lead commissioner for WASH review

62.9 million people – almost the population of the UK – that’s how many people in developing countries DFID claimed to have reached with WASH interventions between 2011 and 2015.

It’s an impressive figure. And – in our first ever ‘impact review’ – it’s a figure the Independent Commission for Aid Impact found to be based on credible evidence.

We assessed the results claim made by DFID about WASH, testing the evidence and visiting projects to see the results for ourselves. We  concluded that the claim was credible – calculated using appropriate methods and conservative assumptions.

But what does reaching 62.9 million people really mean? Have lives been transformed? And have the results been sustainable?

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