Plan International USA and The Water Institute at UNC have conducted the first study to present comprehensive, accurate, disaggregated costs of a WaSH behaviour-change programme. The study calculated programme costs, and local investments for four community-led total sanitation (CLTS) interventions in Ghana and Ethiopia.
Jonny Crocker, Darren Saywell, Katherine F. Shields, Pete Kolsky, Jamie Bartram, The true costs of participatory sanitation : evidence from community-led total sanitation studies in Ghana and Ethiopia. Science of The Total Environment, vol. 601–602, 1 Dec 2017, pp: 1075-1083. DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.05.279 [Open access]
Evidence on sanitation and hygiene program costs is used for many purposes. The few studies that report costs use top-down costing methods that are inaccurate and inappropriate. Community-led total sanitation (CLTS) is a participatory behaviour-change approach that presents difficulties for cost analysis. We used implementation tracking and bottom-up, activity-based costing to assess the process, program costs, and local investments for four CLTS interventions in Ghana and Ethiopia. Data collection included implementation checklists, surveys, and financial records review. Financial costs and value-of-time spent on CLTS by different actors were assessed. Results are disaggregated by intervention, cost category, actor, geographic area, and project month. The average household size was 4.0 people in Ghana, and 5.8 people in Ethiopia. The program cost of CLTS was $30.34–$81.56 per household targeted in Ghana, and $14.15–$19.21 in Ethiopia. Most program costs were from training for three of four interventions. Local investments ranged from $7.93–$22.36 per household targeted in Ghana, and $2.35–$3.41 in Ethiopia. This is the first study to present comprehensive, disaggregated costs of a sanitation and hygiene behaviour-change intervention. The findings can be used to inform policy and finance decisions, plan program scale-up, perform cost-effectiveness and benefit studies, and compare different interventions. The costing method is applicable to other public health behaviour-change programs.
Posted in Africa, Publications, Research, Sanitary Facilities
Tagged Community-Led Total Sanitation, direct support costs, Ethiopia, Ghana, local investment, Plan International, programme costs, UNC Water Institute
Water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) are essential for preventing and managing diseases including neglected tropical diseases (NTD) which affect over 1 billion people among the poorest communities.
Closer coordination of WASH and NTD programmes is needed to ensure WASH services are reaching the most vulnerable populations. Many WASH and NTD actors have started to work together on the planning and implementation of their projects and have documented their experiences and lessons learnt.
The World Health Organization (WHO) has published a paper that draws on examples from eighteen countries to summarise emerging successes and challenges. Several examples relate to WASH in Schools projects. Two case studies are highlighted: the Lao PDR and Cambodia CL-SWASH initiative and the CARE Integrated WASH and NTDs Programme in Ethiopia.
WHO, 2017. Water, sanitation and hygiene to combat neglected tropical diseases : initial lessons from project implementation. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization. 6 p. WHO reference number: WHO/FWC/WSH/17.02. Available at: www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/publications/wash-to-combat-neglected-tropical-diseases/en/
USAID Global Waters – May 2017
Articles in this issue include:
Where WASH Saves Lives: Creating New Traditions in Nepal: Safe WASH II is trying a new approach to chhaupadi to ensure sustained behavior change with the hope that traditional healers and religious leaders can harness community energy to transform the meaning of menstrual taboos
Doubling Access to Safe Drinking Water: How Four African Countries Did It – The WALIS project identified four common elements applied to local systems in Ethiopia, Rwanda, Senegal, and South Africa that contributed to meeting the Millennium Development Goal for clean water access to help other countries learn how to replicate their success.
Tackling Water Issues Lightens the Load for Garment Workers: On World Water Day 2017, USAID and Gap Inc. announced the formation of the Women + Water Global Development Alliance to advance the health and well-being of women, families, and communities touched by the apparel industry.
Real Impact: Water Security for Resilient Economic Growth and Stability: Working in six sites in the Philippines, Be Secure has spent the past five years increasing sustainable access to water and wastewater treatment services and resilience to water stress and extreme weather.
With Water Pours Out Hope: One Village in Tajikistan Builds a Better Future: USAID is working with local governments to improve their capacity to deliver municipal services and providing support to install inexpensive water systems to improve citizens’ access to clean drinking water.
Tackling Water Issues Lightens the Load for Garment Workers. Global Waters, May 2017.
The apparel industry employs millions of people throughout the world, a majority of whom are women. In many garment-producing countries women also bear the disproportionate burden for household responsibilities, particularly water collection.
Lack of access to safe drinking water and sanitation takes up their time, affects their health, lowers their income-earning potential, and stands in the way of caring for families and improving their education.
India, one of the world’s major garment producers and exporters, will be the first focus country of the Women + Water Alliance. Photo Credit: Andre Fanthome
On World Water Day 2017, USAID and Gap Inc. announced the formation of the Women + Water Global Development Alliance to advance the health and well-being of women, families, and communities touched by the apparel industry.
The partnership will be USAID’s first water sector public-private partnership to focus on women as change agents by increasing their participation in decisionmaking and improving access to sustainable water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH).
Read the complete article.
Doubling Access to Safe Drinking Water: How Four African Countries Did It … and How Others Can, Too. Global Waters, May 2017.
Rwanda encourages citizen participation in decision making at all levels of public administration under a practice called “Imihigo.” Photo Credit: HTSPE/DAI
In 1990, the East African nation of Ethiopia stood among the nations in most dire need of water development. Seventeen years of war had left its government and systems in disarray.
Only 11 percent of its more than 48 million people had access to piped or other improved water sources; the rest used unimproved sources such as unprotected wells and carted drums.
Predictably, Ethiopia and countries in similar straits suffered through high rates of communicable, pandemic, and vector-borne disease, child mortality, and other challenges tied to water, sanitation, and hygiene.
Today, Ethiopia’s population has surpassed 100 million, but the magnitude of the country’s success in providing drinking water to nearly half its people in 25 years — despite its diversity, size, and history of war and famine — cannot be overstated.
We must ask: How did Ethiopia and other countries in sub-Saharan Africa double (or more) the proportion of their people with sustainable access to safe drinking water? The answers should be applied to similar countries and their people so they can become water secure and answer the challenges tied to poor water, sanitation, and hygiene, or WASH.
The USAID Water for Africa through Leadership and Institutional Support(WALIS) project is doing just that.
Read the complete article.
The Business: Knowledge and Learning on Sanitation Marketing
The Western Pacific Sanitation Marketing and Innovation Program is funded by the Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (DFAT) CS-WASH Fund, implemented by Live & Learn Environmental Education in partnership with The International Water Centre (IWC), and the International Women’s Development Agency (IWDA).
Recent posts to The Business include:
The magnitude of the sanitation crisis means that sanitation and hygiene solutions must be delivered sustainably, and on a large scale. This requires the close involvement of government at all levels. A new case study outlines eight lessons from the Global Sanitation Fund-supported Uganda Sanitation Fund in coordinating, planning, and implementing Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) at scale through a decentralized government system.
Download the case study or read the feature article on wsscc.org.
Local government health workers and latrine owners proudly display an improved latrine in Lira district, Uganda.©WSSCC/USF
Posted in Africa, Progress on Sanitation, Publications
Tagged CLTS, Follow-up MANDONA, Global Sanitation Fund, GSF, Local governance, Uganda, Uganda Sanitation Fund, WASH, WSSCC