How stakeholders should work together to end open defecation.
Toilet block in Odisha, India. Photo: Andrea van der Kerk/IRC
Solving rural sanitation problems in India requires the involvement of multiple stakeholders. These include government, programme implementers, financing institutions, entrepreneurs and households. Understanding the roles, strengths and weaknesses of each stakeholder, how they interact and complement each other, is key to achieving India’s ambitious goal of ending open defecation by 2019.
As a follow-up to the Sanitation Innovation Accelerator, IRC, Ennovent and Ecociate Consultants commissioned a study to gain insights in the sanitation market in Bihar and Odisha, two states with relatively low levels of sanitation coverage: 29% and 43% respectively. The study was conducted over a period of 3 months (from January to March 2017) in two rural districts: one with a high population density and situated in a heavy clay silt agricultural plain (Samastipur district, Bihar) and the other with a low population density situated in a sandy tropical coast (Ganjam district, Odisha).
RECENT USAID WASH PUBLICATIONS/RESOURCES
OPEN ACCESS PUBLICATIONS
- The importance of thinking beyond the water-supply in cholera epidemics: A historical urban case-study. PLoS NTDs, Nov 27. Spatially targeted cholera interventions, such as reactive vaccination or sanitation/hygiene campaigns in hotspot neighborhoods, would likely have been more effective in this epidemic than control measures aimed at interrupting long-cycle transmission, such as improving municipal water quality.
- THE PERFORMANCE OF PALESTINIAN LOCAL GOVERNMENTS AN ASSESSMENT OF SERVICE DELIVERY OUTCOMES AND PERFORMANCE DRIVERS IN THE WEST BANK AND GAZA. World Bank, June 2017.
- Entamoeba histolytica Briefing Report. GWPP, Nov 2017. Entamoeba histolytica is an invasive, pathogenic protozoan, causing amoebiasis, and an important cause of diarrhea in developing countries.
- Solid waste and faecal sludge management in situations of rapid mass displacement. IDS, Oct 2017.
- Innovative WASH options in situations of severe overcrowding. IDS, Oct 2017. A rapid review of the literature has found a selection of innovative WASH options available for situations of severe population overcrowding and limited spaces. Case study information was collated from African, Middle Eastern, South Asian and Caribbean countries.
These articles will be open access until December 1, 2017.
THE CIRCULAR SANITATION ECONOMY: New Pathways to Commercial and Societal Benefits: Faster at Scale. Toilet Board Coalition (TBC), Nov 2017.
To demonstrate the commercial viability of the Circular Sanitation Economy, by backcasting from the future, to envisage the new business models operating at city scale, and to explore two key questions: Will current Circular Economy Sanitation business models be profitable at scale, and will public subsidy still be required? What are the key elements of the commercial case – the key arguments needed at the inflexion points where scale-up decisions are made?
THE SANITATION ECONOMY IN INDIA: Market Estimates & Insights. TBC, Nov 2017.
OBJECTIVES. To develop a baseline understanding of the potential of new markets derived from the Sanitation Economy as well as a quantified estimation of the opportunity; To identify opportunity spaces for business (vs. specific strategies); To inspire action amongst businesses, regulatory bodies and other actors needed to develop new markets
“The ABC of water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) improvement in schools” in India by the the Urban Management Centre is a handbook developed under the Ahmedabad Sanitation Action Lab (ASAL), a three year action research program.
The program was specially designed to implement innovative solutions to school WASH problems in identified slum settlements of Ahmedabad. ASAL was led by the Urban Management Centre (UMC) in partnership with Government of Gujarat (GoG) and the Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation (AMC) with support from United States Agency for International Development (USAID).
The handbook is a compilation of the strategies adopted, tools developed and materials used to improve WASH infrastructure in schools. It will be useful for schools as well as NGOs working with schools on water and sanitation. It can be used by any authority whether national, state or city level as a resource for implementation of programs in school at different scales. The handbook can also be used as a reference for policy or decision making as well as elaboration of programs.
Download the publication “The ABC of water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) improvement in schools“, September 2017, 54 p.
See the full list of reports, tools, manuals and videos of the Ahmedabad Sanitation Action Lab (ASAL) programme.
All issues of the Frontiers of CLTS: Innovations and Insights can be found on this section of the CLTS website. Some of these are:
- Frontiers Issue 10: Equality and non-discrimination (EQND) in sanitation programmes at scale (part 1)
- Frontiers Issue 9: CLTS in Post-Emergency and Fragile States Settings
- Frontiers Issue 8: CLTS and the Right to Sanitation
- Frontiers Issue 7: Norms, Knowledge and Usage