Category Archives: Publications

Water, Sanitation, Hygiene, and Nutrition in Bangladesh:

Water, Sanitation, Hygiene, and Nutrition in Bangladesh” Can Building Toilets Affect Children’s Growth? 2015.

Authors: Iffat Mahmud and Nkosinathi Mbuya. World Bank.

This report provides a systematic review of the evidence to date, both published and grey literature, on the relationship between water and sanitation and nutrition. bangladesh-wash-1

We also examine the potential impact of improved water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) on undernutrition. This is the first report that undertakes a thorough review and discussion of WASH and nutrition in Bangladesh.

The report is meant to serve two purposes. First, it synthesizes the results/evidence evolving on the pathway of WASH and undernutrition for use by practitioners working in the nutrition and water and sanitation sectors to stimulate technical discussions and effective collaboration among stakeholders.

Second, this report serves as an advocacy tool, primarily for policy makers, to assist them in formulating a multisectoral approach to tackling the undernutrition problem.

Recent WASH studies on NTDS, shared sanitation, detection of E. coli

The Effect of Hygiene-Based Lymphedema Management in Lymphatic Filariasis-Endemic Areas: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. PLoS NTDs, Oct 2015. Authors: Meredith E. Stocks, Matthew C. Freeman, David G. Addiss.

Full text: http://goo.gl/J9WBEM

For people who already have lymphedema, WHO recommends simple hygiene-based measures that include skin care and limb movement. Yet only a small proportion of those with LF-related lymphedema have been trained in these measures. To determine the effectiveness of hygiene-based lymphedema management, we reviewed the scientific literature. Overall, use of hygiene-based measures was associated with 60% lower odds of inflammatory episodes, known as “acute attacks,” in the affected limb. Hygiene is also effective for managing LF-related lymphedema and reducing suffering caused by acute attacks. Training people with lymphedema in hygiene-based interventions should be a priority for LF programs everywhere.

Evaluation of an Inexpensive Growth Medium for Direct Detection of Escherichia coli in Temperate and Sub-Tropical Waters. PLoS One, Oct 2015. Authors: Robert E. S. Bain , Claire Woodall, John Elliott, Benjamin F. Arnold, Rosalind Tung, Robert Morley, Martella du Preez, Jamie K. Bartram, Anthony P. Davis, Stephen W. Gundry, Stephen Pedley

Full text: http://goo.gl/O6fOTk

We developed a new low-cost growth medium, aquatest (AT), and validated its use for the direct detection of E. coli in temperate and sub-tropical drinking waters using IDEXX Quanti-Tray®. AT is reliable and accurate for the detection of E. coli in temperate and subtropical drinking water. The composition of the new medium is reported herein and can be used freely.

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WASHplus Weekly: Lessons Learned in Sanitation

Issue 211 | Oct. 23, 2015 | Lessons Learned in Sanitation

This issue includes studies and resources on lessons learned and innovative approaches in sanitation. Included are a UNICEF learning series, recent studies from USAID, and studies on fecal sludge management, urban sanitation, hygiene, and behavior change.

UNICEF

UNICEF East and Southern Africa Region Sanitation and Hygiene Learning SeriesLink
This series is designed to improve knowledge of best practice and lessons learned in sanitation and hygiene programming across the region. The series has been funded in part by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation in support of improved knowledge management in the sanitation sector.  Field notes, technical briefs, and journal articles are written by practitioners for practitioners and should encourage adoption of innovative or new approaches and technologies within the region and contribute to scaling up access to sanitation and hygiene for the most under-served.

Documents included in the series are:

USAID

USAID/West Africa Sanitation Service Delivery – Making Kumasi a Cleaner City.PSIIMPACT, Sept 2015. D Ward. Link
Dana Ward, PSI country representative in Ghana and chief of party for Sanitation Service Delivery (SSD) Project in Ghana, Benin, and Cote d’Ivoire interviewed Anthony Mensah, director, Waste Management Department Kumasi Metropolitan Authority, about the city’s strategy to make Kumasi among the five cleanest cities in Africa. WASHPlus_HTMLbanner_weekly_600x159

Water and Sanitation Assistance: USAID Has Increased Strategic Focus but Should Improve Monitoring, 2015. GAO. Link
The U.S. Government Accountability Office recommends that USAID take steps to improve monitoring and reporting of WASH activities by identifying and addressing reasons for Missions’ inconsistent adherence with Agency guidance. USAID generally concurred with the recommendations and, in particular, outlined steps it is taking to address the report’s second recommendation.

INNOVATIVE APPROACHES

Innovative Tools for Sanitation Capacity Mapping and Planning in Kenya, 2015. Water and Sanitation Program. Link
Lack of capacity is a major bottleneck that hinders progress in achieving access to sanitation. The Water and Sanitation Program has developed and tested a set of practical tools designed to support clients at the local level as they plan, build, and sustain sanitation capacity.

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Plan International – Testing CLTS Approaches for Scalability: Indonesia Learning Brief

Testing CLTS Approaches for Scalability: Indonesia Learning Brief, 2015. Plan International.

Sanitation Marketing Project in Grobogan District, Indonesia. photo credit to Jonny Crocker

Sanitation Marketing Project in Grobogan District, Indonesia. photo credit to Jonny Crocker

Plan International supports Community-led Total Sanitation (CLTS) implementation in a number of sub-districts in Indonesia.

In this learning brief, we review the roles of local actors in Plan International Indonesia’s program activities and highlight considerations for scalability, planning, implmentation, and evaluation.

Plan International and other sanitation practitioners can support the national government and local actors by placing more responsibility on sub-district staff to lead triggering, enlisting the added support of village facilitators to lead post-triggering, and scaling up village-based financing mechanisms to sustain CLTS outcomes.

Link to project website: http://waterinstitute.unc.edu/clts/

WASHplus Weekly: Focus on Global Handwashing Day 2015

Issue 209 | Oct. 9, 2015 | Focus on Global Handwashing Day 2015

Global Handwashing Day occurs each year on October 15. It is a global advocacy day dedicated to increasing awareness and understanding about the importance of handwashing with soap as an effective and affordable way to prevent diseases and save lives. This issue contains links to handwashing resources from WASHplus, the Global-Public-Private Partnership for Handwashing, recent studies, reports, and videos.  Blue-Raise-a-Hand-300x300

RESOURCES

Global Public-Private Partnership for Handwashing (PPPHW)
This coalition of international stakeholders works explicitly to promote handwashing with soap and recognize hygiene as a pillar of international development and public health. Just a few of the partnership’s resources include the PPPHW website with links to webinars, fact sheets, andmember organizations. Also the Global Handwashing Day Social Media Toolkit features sample messages, blog ideas, and resources to help celebrants and handwashing champions spread the word about Global Handwashing Day.

WASHplus RESOURCES

Small Doable Actions: A Feasible Approach to Behavior Change Learning Brief, 2015. Link
A small doable action is a behavior that, when practiced consistently and correctly, will lead to personal and public health improvement. It is considered feasible by the householder, from HIS/HER point of view, considering the current practice, the available resources, and the particular social context. This brief takes a look at how WASHplus has applied this approach to a range of activities—handwashing, water treatment, improved sanitation, menstrual hygiene management, and food hygiene.

Handwashing and the Science of Habit, 2014. Webinar
This webinar features panelists David Neal, Catalyst Behavioral Sciences; The University of Miami; Jelena Vujcic, Catalyst Behavioral Sciences; The University of Buffalo; Orlando Hernandez, WASHplus, FHI360 and Wendy Wood, The University of Southern California.

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Oct 2015 WASH studies on toilets and health and other topics

Effect of Poor Access to Water and Sanitation as Risk Factors for Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infection: Selectiveness by the Infective Route. PLoS NTDs, Sept 30, 2015. Authors: Adriana Echazú , Daniela Bonanno, Marisa Juarez, Silvana P. Cajal, Viviana Heredia, Silvia Caropresi, Ruben O. Cimino, Nicolas Caro, Paola A. Vargas, Gladys Paredes, Alejandro J. Krolewiecki

Full text – http://goo.gl/DgAVMm

The aim of this study is to assess the association of lacking access to water and sanitation with STH infections, taking into account the differences in route of infection among species and the availability of adequate water and sanitation at home. After controlling for potential confounders, unimproved sanitation was significantly associated with increased odds of infection of skin-penetrators (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 3.9; 95% CI: 2.6–5.9). Unimproved drinking water was significantly associated with increased odds of infection of orally-ingested (aOR = 2.2; 95% CI: 1.3–3.7). The present study reports an association between poor sanitation and water access and STH infections selective to the parasite route of entry. This finding could contribute to the design of specific and rational recommendations to reduce soil-transmitted helminths transmission.

MIT-USAID program releases evaluation of water filters: Study of water filters used in Indian homes assesses suitability, scalability, and sustainability, Oct 2015. | Complete report | Summary |

CITE’s household water filter evaluation allowed us to study innovations with the potential to better the lives of India’s “water poor”—the 76 million people in the country who lack improved drinking water. CITE teams studied over 100 models of householder water filters from nine major brands available on the market in Ahmedabad, India. These models fell into three main categories: conventional particle filtration (cloth/jali mesh), gravity non-electric filters, and reverse osmosis filters.

Toilets Can Work: Short and Medium Run Health Impacts of Addressing Complementarities and Externalities in Water and Sanitation, 2015. Authors: ESTHER DUFLO, MICHAEL GREENSTONE, RAYMOND GUITERAS, AND THOMAS CLASEN

Full text: http://goo.gl/gafi0n

This paper estimates the impact of an integrated water and sanitation improvement program in rural India that provided household-level water connections, latrines, and bathing facilities to all households in approximately 100 villages. The estimates suggest that the intervention was effective, reducing treated diarrhea episodes by 30-50%. These results are evident in the short term and persist for 5 years or more. The annual cost is approximately US$60 per household.

Stunting is associated with poor outcomes in childhood pneumonia. Trop Med Intl Health, Oct 2015. Authors: Peter P. Moschovis, et al.

Abstract: http://goo.gl/4qAXXY

Stunting affects 26.7% of children worldwide, and little is known about its effects on the outcomes of childhood pneumonia. We evaluated the effect of stunting on the outcomes of pneumonia among children enrolled in two large clinical trials.  Stunting increases the risk of treatment failure and is associated with a longer course of recovery in children with pneumonia. Strategies to decrease stunting may decrease the burden of adverse outcomes in childhood pneumonia in low-resource settings.

 

How can research drive public finance? NEW FINANCE BRIEF by Malaika Cheney-Coker

Finance Brief 7: Evidence into Policy: How Research has Influenced Kenyan Government Budgets for School Wash.

by Malaika Cheney-Coker for PF4WASH

Read it here: Finance Brief 7

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