Category Archives: Publications

IIED – Building towards a future in which urban sanitation “leaves no one behind”

Building towards a future in which urban sanitation “leaves no one behind,” 2015. Diana Mitlin, IIED.

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Plans to improve access to sanitation in towns and cities of the global South are hampered by multiple challenges. One is a lack of reliable information. In particular, global and national-level data often diverge from data on particular settlements, collected by inhabitants of those settlements themselves. Local data highlight the inadequacy of living conditions – and in so doing evidence the difficulties in securing improvements. Another challenge lies in the setting of standards around acceptable sanitation. At a global level, for instance, shared sanitation is not considered part of “improved” sanitation. Yet the reality for many low-income urban populations is that communal sanitation can be hygienic, cost-effective and locally acceptable.

The difficulties in reaching a consensus around data and standards point to the importance of diverse approaches to increasing and improving sanitation, including considering both on-site and off-site solutions.

They also highlight how crucial it is for the planning and implementation of all such solutions to be inclusive of those often missing from global debates, such as the low-income urban groups that cannot afford substantial sanitation spending. Financial and political commitments, drawing on the circumstances and approaches articulated by low-income groups themselves, will be key to securing a future in which everyone has access to the sanitation they need.

Testing CLTS Approaches for Scalability: Nepal Learning Brief

Nepal UNC

Pour Flush Toilet in Nepal. Photo Credit: Vidya Venkataramanan

Plan International supports Community-led Total Sanitation (CLTS) implementation in a number of districts in Nepal. In this learning brief, we review Plan International Nepal’s CLTS activities. We found government targets and definitions to be ambitious while decentralized planning allowed a focus on community-led processes. Plan International and other sanitation practitioners can support CLTS outcomes by providing post-triggering training and technical support to community volunteers, focusing on achieving gradual, yet sustained outcomes in program areas, and continuing to work with local governments to ensure that financing mechanisms for the poor are locally developed and equitable.

Link to learning brief: https://waterinstitute.unc.edu/files/2015/11/learning-series-nepal-learning-brief-2015-11.pdf

Citation: Community-led Total Sanitation in Nepal: Findings from an Implementation Case Study. Venkataramanan, Vidya, Alexandra Shannon, and Jennifer Bogle. 2015. Chapel Hill, USA: The Water Institute at UNC.

New week NEW BRIEF! Finance Brief N. 8: “A few cents on your water bill: Tana’s (Anatanarivo) surcharge system” By Sylvie Ramanantsoa, Julie Ranaivo and Guy Norman

Tana 001    In Madagascar’s capital Antananarivo (Tana), water bills include various surcharges designed to help finance water and sanitation. In recent years, Water & Sanitation for the Urban Poor (WSUP) has been working with local government and with the utility JIRAMA to optimise the use of these revenues to support water supply improvements in low-income communities. This brief describes how this interesting system works, and considers how it might be further developed.

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Water, Sanitation, Hygiene, and Nutrition in Bangladesh:

Water, Sanitation, Hygiene, and Nutrition in Bangladesh” Can Building Toilets Affect Children’s Growth? 2015.

Authors: Iffat Mahmud and Nkosinathi Mbuya. World Bank.

This report provides a systematic review of the evidence to date, both published and grey literature, on the relationship between water and sanitation and nutrition. bangladesh-wash-1

We also examine the potential impact of improved water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) on undernutrition. This is the first report that undertakes a thorough review and discussion of WASH and nutrition in Bangladesh.

The report is meant to serve two purposes. First, it synthesizes the results/evidence evolving on the pathway of WASH and undernutrition for use by practitioners working in the nutrition and water and sanitation sectors to stimulate technical discussions and effective collaboration among stakeholders.

Second, this report serves as an advocacy tool, primarily for policy makers, to assist them in formulating a multisectoral approach to tackling the undernutrition problem.

Recent WASH studies on NTDS, shared sanitation, detection of E. coli

The Effect of Hygiene-Based Lymphedema Management in Lymphatic Filariasis-Endemic Areas: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. PLoS NTDs, Oct 2015. Authors: Meredith E. Stocks, Matthew C. Freeman, David G. Addiss.

Full text: http://goo.gl/J9WBEM

For people who already have lymphedema, WHO recommends simple hygiene-based measures that include skin care and limb movement. Yet only a small proportion of those with LF-related lymphedema have been trained in these measures. To determine the effectiveness of hygiene-based lymphedema management, we reviewed the scientific literature. Overall, use of hygiene-based measures was associated with 60% lower odds of inflammatory episodes, known as “acute attacks,” in the affected limb. Hygiene is also effective for managing LF-related lymphedema and reducing suffering caused by acute attacks. Training people with lymphedema in hygiene-based interventions should be a priority for LF programs everywhere.

Evaluation of an Inexpensive Growth Medium for Direct Detection of Escherichia coli in Temperate and Sub-Tropical Waters. PLoS One, Oct 2015. Authors: Robert E. S. Bain , Claire Woodall, John Elliott, Benjamin F. Arnold, Rosalind Tung, Robert Morley, Martella du Preez, Jamie K. Bartram, Anthony P. Davis, Stephen W. Gundry, Stephen Pedley

Full text: http://goo.gl/O6fOTk

We developed a new low-cost growth medium, aquatest (AT), and validated its use for the direct detection of E. coli in temperate and sub-tropical drinking waters using IDEXX Quanti-Tray®. AT is reliable and accurate for the detection of E. coli in temperate and subtropical drinking water. The composition of the new medium is reported herein and can be used freely.

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WASHplus Weekly: Lessons Learned in Sanitation

Issue 211 | Oct. 23, 2015 | Lessons Learned in Sanitation

This issue includes studies and resources on lessons learned and innovative approaches in sanitation. Included are a UNICEF learning series, recent studies from USAID, and studies on fecal sludge management, urban sanitation, hygiene, and behavior change.

UNICEF

UNICEF East and Southern Africa Region Sanitation and Hygiene Learning SeriesLink
This series is designed to improve knowledge of best practice and lessons learned in sanitation and hygiene programming across the region. The series has been funded in part by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation in support of improved knowledge management in the sanitation sector.  Field notes, technical briefs, and journal articles are written by practitioners for practitioners and should encourage adoption of innovative or new approaches and technologies within the region and contribute to scaling up access to sanitation and hygiene for the most under-served.

Documents included in the series are:

USAID

USAID/West Africa Sanitation Service Delivery – Making Kumasi a Cleaner City.PSIIMPACT, Sept 2015. D Ward. Link
Dana Ward, PSI country representative in Ghana and chief of party for Sanitation Service Delivery (SSD) Project in Ghana, Benin, and Cote d’Ivoire interviewed Anthony Mensah, director, Waste Management Department Kumasi Metropolitan Authority, about the city’s strategy to make Kumasi among the five cleanest cities in Africa. WASHPlus_HTMLbanner_weekly_600x159

Water and Sanitation Assistance: USAID Has Increased Strategic Focus but Should Improve Monitoring, 2015. GAO. Link
The U.S. Government Accountability Office recommends that USAID take steps to improve monitoring and reporting of WASH activities by identifying and addressing reasons for Missions’ inconsistent adherence with Agency guidance. USAID generally concurred with the recommendations and, in particular, outlined steps it is taking to address the report’s second recommendation.

INNOVATIVE APPROACHES

Innovative Tools for Sanitation Capacity Mapping and Planning in Kenya, 2015. Water and Sanitation Program. Link
Lack of capacity is a major bottleneck that hinders progress in achieving access to sanitation. The Water and Sanitation Program has developed and tested a set of practical tools designed to support clients at the local level as they plan, build, and sustain sanitation capacity.

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Plan International – Testing CLTS Approaches for Scalability: Indonesia Learning Brief

Testing CLTS Approaches for Scalability: Indonesia Learning Brief, 2015. Plan International.

Sanitation Marketing Project in Grobogan District, Indonesia. photo credit to Jonny Crocker

Sanitation Marketing Project in Grobogan District, Indonesia. photo credit to Jonny Crocker

Plan International supports Community-led Total Sanitation (CLTS) implementation in a number of sub-districts in Indonesia.

In this learning brief, we review the roles of local actors in Plan International Indonesia’s program activities and highlight considerations for scalability, planning, implmentation, and evaluation.

Plan International and other sanitation practitioners can support the national government and local actors by placing more responsibility on sub-district staff to lead triggering, enlisting the added support of village facilitators to lead post-triggering, and scaling up village-based financing mechanisms to sustain CLTS outcomes.

Link to project website: http://waterinstitute.unc.edu/clts/