Category Archives: Publications

Open access WASH articles published in 2016

Below are links to 2016 open access WASH articles published in the American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene astmh_logo

Dynamics and Trends in Fecal Biomarkers of Gut Function in Children from 1–24 Months in the MAL-ED Study Am J Trop Med Hyg 16-0496; Published online December 19, 2016,
Abstract Full Text (PDF)

Adapting and Evaluating a Rapid, Low-Cost Method to Enumerate Flies in the Household Setting Am J Trop Med Hyg 16-0162; Published online December 12, 2016,
Abstract Full Text (PDF)

Effectiveness of Membrane Filtration to Improve Drinking Water: A Quasi-Experimental Study from Rural Southern India Am J Trop Med Hyg 2016 95:1192; Published online September 6, 2016,
Abstract Full Text

Assessing Latrine Use in Rural India: A Cross-Sectional Study Comparing Reported Use and Passive Latrine Use Monitors Am J Trop Med Hyg 2016 95:720; Published online July 25, 2016,
Abstract Full Text

Subsidized Sachet Water to Reduce Diarrheal Disease in Young Children: A Feasibility Study in Accra, Ghana Am J Trop Med Hyg 2016 95:239; Published online May 23, 2016,
Abstract Full Text

Ascaris lumbricoides Infection Following School-Based Deworming in Western Kenya: Assessing the Role of Pupils’ School and Home WaterSanitation, and Hygiene Exposures Am J Trop Med Hyg 2016 94:1045; Published online February 22, 2016,
Abstract Full Text

Quantifying Contact with the Environment: Behaviors of Young Children in Accra, Ghana Am J Trop Med Hyg 2016 94:920; Published online February 15, 2016,
Abstract Full Text

Population Density, Poor Sanitation, and Enteric Infections in Nueva Santa Rosa, Guatemala Am J Trop Med Hyg 2016 94:912; Published online February 8, 2016,
Abstract Full Text

Infant and Young Child Feces Management and Enabling Products for Their Hygienic Collection, Transport, and Disposal in Cambodia Am J Trop Med Hyg 2016 94:456; Published online November 23, 2015,
Abstract Full Text

Standard For Decentralised Faecal Sludge Treatment In Developing Countries

Standard For Decentralised Faecal Sludge Treatment In Developing Countries. Water Online, November 8, 2016.

TÜV SÜD has started developing a private technical standard for decentralized treatment plants. The aim is to promote innovations for safe and environmentally friendly sanitation in developing countries. The work is funded by a grant from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

“Our experience proves the value of standards in promoting new technologies”, says Dr Andreas Hauser, Director of Water Services at TÜV SÜD. “Establishing common guidelines is a key step towards fostering next-generation faecal sludge treatment plants as well as engaging commercial interests”. The standard will refer to technologies that can convert waste into beneficial outputs, like electricity, biomass, water for irrigation and ash – in accordance with the resource-oriented sanitation approach.

They are operated on a commercial basis and serve up to 10.000-100.000 people improving hygiene, living conditions and creating economic opportunities. For them to become accepted and adopted essential criteria need to be met concerning for example functional safety, treatment performance, occupational health or emission values.

The private technical standard is to define these criteria. It is a follow-on project within the Gates Foundation’s Omni-Processor program. Beginning in November 2015 TÜV SÜD has been examining and evaluating the various requirements and possibly relevant standards for decentralized, community scale faecal sludge treatment solutions.

Developing a standard now takes this work to a new level. Dr Andreas Hauser: “A private technical standard for decentralized faecal sludge treatment plants will benefit the entire value chain towards a resource-oriented sanitation approach.”

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Understanding ‘slippage’

As sanitation and hygiene programmes mature, the challenge shifts from helping communities achieve open defecation free (ODF) status to sustaining this status. In this context, many programmes are confronted with ‘slippage’ – the return to previous unhygienic behaviours, or the inability of some or all community members to continue to meet all ODF criteria. How should slippage be understood and addressed? A new report – primarily based on experiences from the Global Sanitation Fund (GSF)-supported programme in Madagascar, provides comprehensive insights.

Download the complete paper or read the feature article below.

feature-photo-reflection-paper-understanging-slippage

Eugène de Ligori Rasamoelina, Executive Director of the Malagasy NGO Miarantsoa, triggers commune leaders. Miarantsoa pioneered Follow-up MANDONA, a proven approach for mitigating slippage. Photo: WSSCC/Carolien van der Voorden

Slippage is intricate because it is hinged on the philosophy and complexity of behaviour change. Moreover, the definition of slippage is linked to the definition of ODF in a given country. The more demanding the ODF criteria are, the more slippage one can potentially experience.

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Global Waters, October 2016 – USAID

Below are links to articles in the October 2016 issue of USAID’s Global Waters: handwashing

SNV publications on urban sanitation

SNV’s Urban Sanitation & Hygiene for Health and Development (USHHD) programme works with municipal governments to develop safe, sustainable city-wide services. The programme integrates insights in WASH governance, investment and finance, behavioural change communication and management of the sanitation service chain. We engage private sector, civil society organisations, users and local authorities to improve public health and development opportunities in their city.

As part of our USHHD programme, we have a long term partnership with the Institute for Sustainable Futures, University of Technology Sydney focused on knowledge and learning to improve practice and contribute to the WASH sector knowledge and evidence. Our recent collaborative efforts have resulted in the following papers:

Are we doing the right thing? Critical questioning for city sanitation planning (2016)
Cities are clear examples of complex and rapidly changing systems, particularly in countries where urban population growth and economic development continue apace, and where the socio-political context strongly influences the directions taken. The concept of double-loop learning can be usefully applied to city sanitation planning. This paper prompts practitioners, policy-makers and development agencies to reflect on their approaches to city sanitation planning and the assumptions that underlie them.
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Exploring legal and policy aspects of urban sanitation and hygiene (2016)
During 2012-2014, SNV did four country reviews of legal arrangements for urban sanitation and hygiene in Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh and Indonesia. Based on these experiences, this guide was developed to provide support and guidance for WASH practitioners undertaking a scan of legal arrangements to inform the design (use of frameworks and tools) and delivery (advocacy for improvements) of urban sanitation and hygiene programs.
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A guide to septage transfer stations (2016)
Septage transfer stations have the potential to significantly reduce the amount of faecal sludge entering the environment by providing a local solution for septage disposal. Localised transfer stations shorten the time required for local operators to collect and transport septage, and they will be able to use smaller vacuum tanks that can navigate the densely populated residential areas. This guide provides information on the salient aspects of selecting, designing, building, operating and maintaining a septage transfer station.
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Financing sanitation for cities and towns (2014)
Planning and financing for sanitation in cities and towns in developing countries is often ad hoc and piecemeal. Stronger capacity to plan financing for sanitation infrastructure (and services) for the long term will lead to better outcomes. Planning for adequate long-term services requires consideration of the complete sanitation service chain over the lifecycle of the associated service infrastructure. This paper focuses on access to the upfront finance and other lumpy finance needs for initial investment and for rehabilitation and/or replacement as physical systems approach their end of life.
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For further information about these papers or the organisations, please contact:
Antoinette Kome (SNV) – akome@snv.org
Juliet Willetts (ISF) on Juliet.willetts@uts.edu.au

USAID’s Global Waters, August 2016

The August 2016 issue of USAID’s Global Waters is now online and includes the articles listed below. usaid

Pipeline to Progress  – The recent opening of a major new USAID-funded water pipeline is pumping new life into area homes and businesses — carrying with it the promise of a more dependable water supply for 260,000 residents of the southern West Bank

West Africa Water Supply, Sanitation & Hygiene Program – Our Real Impact series takes an in-depth look at USAID’s WA-WASH program and its work in the West African countries of Burkina Faso, Ghana, and Niger.

Improving Water Services for a More Water Secure Middle East – Global Water Coordinator Christian Holmes reports on his Middle East visit and the work being done to meet regional water needs to both maintain public health and produce food.

Nader Al-Khateeb on West Bank Water Security – Al-Khateeb tells Global Waters Radio about the recent opening of the Deir Sha’ar pipeline in the southern West Bank and how it is improving water security for 260,000 residents.

Emily Rand on Improved Child Feces Management – Rand discusses key findings from recent research  produced by the World Bank and UNICEF in the growing public health field of child feces management.

Annabell Waititu on Gender and Water Management in Kenya – Waititu talks to Global Waters Radio about why it is important for women to become involved in water management decisions beyond the household.

Poor sanitation cost global economy US$ 223 billion in 2015

True cost poor sanitation cover

Lack of access to sanitation cost the global economy US$222.9 billion in 2015, up from US$182.5 billion in 2010, a rise of 22% in just five years, according to a new report released on 25 August 2016 by LIXIL Group Corporation (“LIXIL Group”), a global leader in housing and building materials, products and services.

The true cost of poor sanitation, published in collaboration with WaterAid and Oxford Economics, which conducted economic modeling to develop up-to-date estimations of the global cost of poor sanitation, brings to light the high economic burden in low-income and lower-middle income countries.

More than half (55%) of all costs of poor sanitation are a consequence of premature deaths, rising to 75% in Africa. A further quarter are due to treating related diseases, and other costs are related to lower productivity as a result of illnesses and time lost due to lack of access to a private toilet.

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