Category Archives: Publications

Emerging Issues of Environmental Concern: UNEP Frontiers 2016 Report

Emerging Issues of Environmental Concern: UNEP Frontiers 2016 Report, 2016. UNEP.

The UNEP Frontiers 2016 edition presents six emerging issues. It highlights, for example, that the global significance of the financial sector should not confine itself only to enhancing global economic growth, but also to advancing environmental sustainability. The financial sector has a crucial role to play in investing in new low-carbon, resource efficient and environmentally sound assets, and shifting capital away from traditional assets that have high impacts on the environment. The report presents a number of emerging financial initiatives led by the financial sector as innovative solutions to sustainability challenges.

There is a worldwide increase in disease emergence and epidemics particularly from zoonoses – diseases that can be passed on between animals and humans. The report illustrates how the emergence and re-emergence of zoonotic diseases are closely interlinked with the health of ecosystems. The risk of disease emergence and amplification increases with the intensification of human activities surrounding and encroaching into natural habitats, enabling pathogens in wildlife reservoirs to spill over to livestock and humans.

The recent years have seen a growing presence of plastic pollution in the aquatic environment, particularly in form of microplastics. While stakeholders are increasing their efforts to reduce the use of microplastics through innovative approaches and policy change, the scientific community is racing to understand the level of exposure and physiological impacts of microplastic contaminants on various organisms, as well as the risk to human health through consumption of contaminated food.

The UNEP Frontiers report also highlights two critical issues associated with climate change. The issue of loss and damage to ecosystems due to changing climate has risen to global attention in recent years, and has led to the establishment of the Warsaw international mechanism for loss and damage associated with climate change impacts. The report introduces a number of case studies on recent sudden- and slow-onset events that have caused losses and damages to ecosystems and human systems, and presents a range of risk management tools needed to avoid harm.



Last issue of the WASHplus Weekly

Issue 224 | July 8, 2016 | Focus on WASHplus Project Publications

Dear readers, this is the last issue of the WASHplus Weekly from the WASHplus project. We thank you for your continued support and interest in this resource. We know the Weekly has been highly valued and a new version of this product will make its debut in July, with support from USAID’s Water Team. Please stay tuned! 

These documents can be downloaded at:
By Country


Understanding Consumer Preference and Willingness to Pay for Improved Cookstoves in Bangladesh, 2013. This study uses qualitative and quantitative methods to explore consumer perceptions of five of the most promising improved cookstoves potentially available for distribution in Bangladesh.

A brief of the above study is also available: What Do Cooks Want? What Will They Pay? A Study of Improved Cookstoves in Bangladesh, 2014.

WASHplus Behavior Change Strategy: Hygiene Promotion Guidelines for Bangladesh, 2013. The WASHplus activity aims to increase the consistent and correct practice of a suite of water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) behaviors in order to see related improvements in child growth and overall household resiliency and health.

WASHplus Baseline Assessment of WASH Situation in Southwestern Bangladesh,2013.

Bangladesh Controlled Cooking Tests (CCTs) of Seven Improved Cookstoves Plus Traditional Stove as Baseline, 2014.

Improving Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene in Southwest Bangladesh: An Overview, 2014. An overview of the three-year WASHplus program, implemented through WaterAid and local NGO partners, to improve WASH in southwestern Bangladesh.

Assessing Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene (WASH) in Southwestern Bangladesh: Project Completion Report, 2016. A comprehensive report on the success of the recently closed four-year project that aimed to address the underlying causes of inadequate WASH conditions in hard-to-reach areas of southwestern Bangladesh.


Peace Corps Benin WASH Tools and Training Resources, 2014. French language training materials on household water treatment, community-led total sanitation, and WASH in schools.

What is the USAID/WASHplus Benin Urban Hygiene Improvement Program? 2015. This brief provides an overview of the pilot hygiene improvement program in two of Cotonou’s most neglected peri-urban neighborhoods, Agbato and Enagnon. The program focuses primarily on handwashing with soap and safe household drinking water.

Continue reading

PMA2020 WASH Brief on Indonesia

Performance Monitoring and Accountability (PMA2020) uses innovative mobile technology to support low-cost, rapid-turnaround surveys to monitor key indicators for family planning and WASH. indonesia-pma-4

The project is implemented by local university and research organizations in 10 countries, deploying a cadre of female resident enumerators trained in mobile-assisted data collection at 6-month and 12-month intervals.

PMA2020 WASH briefs provide a two-page snapshot of key WASH indicators including number of household water sources, use of unimproved water sources and sanitation facilities, as well as percent of population using open defecation as a main or regular practice.

Our latest WASH brief from Indonesia is based off of a nationally representative survey conducted between June and August 2015.

For more information on PMA2020 WASH please visit, or contact Alec Shannon at


A Community Approach to Better Public Health in Rural Liberia

A Community Approach to Better Public Health in Rural Liberia. Global Waters, June 2016

Liberia is no stranger to difficult times, having weathered a devastating Ebola outbreak and now struggling through a slow economic recovery. Lost amid the headlines from these events is the story of Liberia’s quiet public health victories.


Residents of Lofa County’s Vahun district in Liberia gather to discuss strategy for sustaining recent local sanitation improvements. Photo Credit: Global Communities

Half of Liberia’s 4.5 million people live in the countryside and roughly the same amount practice open defecation.

This practice has jeopardized public health by facilitating the spread of diseases that cause diarrhea, Liberia’s sixth leading cause of death and the primary cause of childhood morbidity and mortality.

However, thanks to two programs that championed community-led sanitation improvements, USAID has now helped 1,500 Liberian communities achieve open defecation-free (ODF) status — fueling optimism about continued public health improvements in the near term

Read the complete article.

DFID should ensure sustainability of its WASH programmes – independent review

Richard Gledhill  ICAI

Richard Gledhill

By Richard Gledhill, ICAI lead commissioner for WASH review

62.9 million people – almost the population of the UK – that’s how many people in developing countries DFID claimed to have reached with WASH interventions between 2011 and 2015.

It’s an impressive figure. And – in our first ever ‘impact review’ – it’s a figure the Independent Commission for Aid Impact found to be based on credible evidence.

We assessed the results claim made by DFID about WASH, testing the evidence and visiting projects to see the results for ourselves. We  concluded that the claim was credible – calculated using appropriate methods and conservative assumptions.

But what does reaching 62.9 million people really mean? Have lives been transformed? And have the results been sustainable?

Continue reading

Recently published sanitation studies & reports

Towards Gender Equality through Sanitation Access. UN Women, 2016.
This discussion paper reviews the extensive literature on sanitation to show that inadequate access to this basic service prevents the realization of a range of human rights and of gender equality.

Financing Sanitation for Low-Income Urban Communities: Lessons from the Center for Community Organization and Development (CCODE) and the Federation in Malawi. International Institute for Environment and Development, 2016.
By utilizing social capital and promoting ecological sanitation, an organization in Malawi has enabled thousands of urban poor households to afford better toilets. This study shows that the CCODE model could do this for most of Malawi’s urban poor.

Association of Safe Disposal of Child Feces and Reported Diarrhea in Indonesia: Need for Stronger Focus on a Neglected Risk. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, March 2016.
This study examines the association between diarrhea in children aged less than 24 months with WASH interventions and population characteristics.

Webinar on the Partial Usage of Toilets, April 7, 2016. Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) Knowledge Hub, March 2016.
The CLTS Knowledge Hub will be offering a free webinar on the issue of partial usage of toilets and why some members of a household continue to defecate in the open.

Process Evaluation of the National Sanitation Campaign of Tanzania, 2011-2015. London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine; Sanitation and Hygiene Applied Research for Equity (SHARE), 2016.
This report summarizes the findings of an evaluation of the Government of Tanzania’s National Sanitation Campaign that was conducted by SHARE researchers and partners.

Determinants of Usage of Communal Sanitation Facilities in Informal Settlements of Kisumu, Kenya. London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine; Sanitation and Hygiene Applied Research for Equity (SHARE), 2016.
This study found that such factors as location/siting, inadequate maintenance, economic aspects, and gender issues influence the use of communal facilities. The paper concludes by summarizing implications for policy, practice and research.

Hygiene needs of incontinence sufferers

A desk-based review of how WASH actors can better address the hygiene needs of people living with urinary and/or faecal incontinence in developing countries was conducted with funding from WaterAid UK/SHARE in late 2015.

Incontinence products for men

Incontinence products for men. Illustration from the report

The report outlines what incontinence is and how people generally manage their incontinence, as well as relevant experiences and guidance from within the development and humanitarian spheres (related to incontinence as well as other areas such as menstrual hygiene managemant (MHM) and inclusive WASH). The report also provides recommendations on how to better support the hygiene and WASH needs of those people suffering from incontinence.

Continue reading