Category Archives: Research

July 2018 WASH BENEFITS studies, recent WASH research on cholera, sludge reuse

JULY 2018 WASH BENEFITS STUDIES

Achieving optimal technology and behavioral uptake of single and combined interventions of water, sanitation hygiene and nutrition, in an efficacy trial (WASH benefits) in rural Bangladesh. BMC Trials, July 2018. Rigorous implementation of interventions deployed at large scale in the context of an efficacy trial achieved high levels of technology and behavioral uptake in individual and combined WASH and nutrition intervention households.

WASH Benefits Bangladesh trial: management structure for achieving high coverage in an efficacy trial. BMC Trials, July 2018. The intensive intervention delivery system required for an efficacy trial differs in many respects from the system for a routine program. To implement a routine program at scale requires further research on how to optimize the supervisor-to-CHW-to-intervention household ratios, as well as other program costs without compromising program effectiveness.

WASH Benefits Bangladesh trial: system for monitoring coverage and quality in an efficacy trial. BMC Trials, July 2018. An intensive implementation fidelity monitoring and rapid response system proved beneficial for this efficacy trial. To implement a routine program at scale requires further research into an adaptation of fidelity monitoring that supports program effectiveness.

OPEN ACCESS JOURNAL ARTICLES

A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Association between Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Exposures and Cholera in Case–Control Studies. Am Jnl Trop Med Hyg, Early view. Water, sanitation, and hygiene interventions should address multiple transmission routes and be well implemented, according to international guidance, to ensure that field effectiveness matches theoretical efficacy. In addition, future case–control studies should detail WASH characteristics to contextualize results.

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Webinar on the Sustainability of USAID/Indonesia’s Urban Water Utility Services Activities

Webinar on the Sustainability of USAID/Indonesia’s Urban Water Utility Services Activities

How sustainable are outcomes several years after water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) projects have closed? ESP-Indonesia-pdam-1024x512

In this webinar, Leslie Greene Hodel (Senior Advisor, Water CKM Project) presents findings from the second in a series of USAID Water Communications and Knowledge Management (CKM) Project ex-post evaluations on the Indonesia Environmental Services Program (ESP), implemented by DAI between 2004 and 2010.

Seven years after the close of the project, the evaluation team used a mixed-methods design, including utility service level and performance data as well as qualitative interviews, to examine the enduring influence of selected ESP achievements in improving urban water utilities’ service levels as well as utilities’ management capacity and financial stability.

The evaluation also verified the present status of a microcredit program designed to improve access to the poor. Lessons from this evaluation are intended to inform improvements to ongoing USAID urban WASH activity design in Indonesia and beyond.

Link to the webinar and the evaluation.

Call for researchers: Increasing the impact of school-based hygiene promotion programmes in Madagascar

This research project, commissioned under WSUP’s Urban Sanitation Research Initiative with funding from Dubai Cares, will use a formative research approach to explore barriers and opportunities for improved school WASH in Madagascar. The over-arching aim of this research is to contribute to the evidence base required to improve and expand Madagascar’s existing WASH Friendly Schools programme (Ecoles Amies de WASH).

The research should aim to identify a feasible adjustment to the current programme model, which generates a sustained increase (by comparison with the existing model as currently applied) in the prevalence of key hygiene behaviours, among schoolchildren exposed to the programme and among members of their households. This will involve a) literature review and formative research to identify one or two adjustments to the current model, which can plausibly be expected to achieve better outcomes; and b) rigorous comparative evaluation of outcomes achieved in implementation of the existing model and adjusted models. Implementation will be funded and managed by WSUP.

The research may be led by a Madagascan or non-Madagascan organisation, but in either case this work will require strong Madagascan involvement in research design and delivery.

More information can be found in the Call here.

Maximum budget under this Call: GBP 65,000

Bids due: 23rd July 2018

Focus country: Madagascar

Languages: French (req’d), English (optional), Malagasy (optional)

Recent WASH research on handwashing, latrine use, CLTS, water quality

OPEN ACCESS JOURNAL ARTICLES

Acceptability and Feasibility of Sharing a Soapy Water System for Handwashing in a Low-Income Urban Community in Dhaka, Bangladesh: A Qualitative Study. AJTMH, June 2018.

Washing with hope: evidence of improved handwashing among children in South Africa from a pilot study of a novel soap technology. BMC Public Health, June 2018.

Small town water services sustainability checks: development and application in Ethiopia. Water Policy, June 2018.

Water Sector Reforms, Commercialization and Financial Sustainability of Public Water Utilities in Kenya: The Case of Homa Bay Water and Sewerage Company Limited. International Journal of Business and Management, June 2018.

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Recent WASH research on water quality, sanitation and gender, community management and other topics

JOURNAL ARTICLES

Adherence to Point-of-Use Water Treatment over Short-Term Implementation: Parallel Crossover Trials of Flocculation–Disinfection Sachets in Pakistan and Zambia. Environ. Sci. Technol., May 2018.

Access to Household Water Quality Information Leads to Safer Water: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial in India. Environ. Sci. Technol., April 2018.

Access to water and sanitation among people with disabilities: results from cross-sectional surveys in Bangladesh, Cameroon, India and Malawi. BMJ Open, June 4.

The evolution and importance of ‘rules-in-use’ and low-level penalties in village-level collective action. Water Alternatives, 2018.

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USAID  Desk Review on Market-Based Rural Sanitation Development Programs

Below is the link to the release of a new USAID desk review prepared under the Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Partnerships and Learning for Sustainability (WASHPaLS):

 Desk Review on Market-Based Rural Sanitation Development Programs.

 The USAID/WASHPaLS project prepared a desk review that investigates the current state of knowledge in market-based sanitation (MBS) and establishes a framework to analyze, design, and improve MBS interventions. This report is based on a survey of approximately 600 documents on MBS, in-depth research into 13 MBS intervention case studies across the global south, and interviews with sector experts and program personnel. usaidlogo

This review offers a framework that draws upon and contributes to existing evidence across the three crucial challenges to scaling MBS—appropriate product and business model choices, viability of sanitation enterprises, and difficulty of unlocking public and private financing for sanitation. It also helps funders and implementers design, analyze, and improve MBS interventions and offers guidance for stakeholders and governments interested in using sanitation markets to expand sanitation coverage and reduce open defecation. In addition, this review highlights the larger contextual parameters that determine the applicability of MBS within a given market.

This review was made possible by contributions from Rishi Agarwal, Subhash Chennuri, and Aaron Mihaly (FSG); Dr. Jeff Albert (Aquaya); Dr. Mimi Jenkins (University of California, Davis); Morris Israel (Tetra Tech); Hannah Taukobong (Iris Group, Inc.); Elizabeth Jordan and Jesse Shapiro (USAID); and others.

WASH research update on handwashing, CLTS and other topics – May 31, 2018.

Effect of hygiene interventions on acute respiratory infections in childcare, school and domestic settings in low‐ and middle‐income countries: a systematic review. TMIH, May 2018. Evidence suggests that hand hygiene interventions delivered in childcare, school and domestic settings can reduce ARI morbidity, but effectiveness varies according to setting, intervention target, and intervention compliance.

Is Community-Led Total Sanitation connected to the rebuilding of latrines? Quantitative evidence from Mozambique. PLoS One, May 22. Logistic regression and mediation analyses reveal that latrine rebuilding depends on education, soil conditions, social cohesion, and a feeling of being safe from diarrhea, the perception that many other community members own a latrine, and high confidence in personal ability to repair or rebuild a broken latrine.

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