Category Archives: Uncategorized

WHO strengthens focus on water, sanitation and hygiene to accelerate elimination of neglected tropical diseases

August 27, 2015 –  WHO strengthens focus on water, sanitation and hygiene to accelerate elimination of neglected tropical diseases | Source: World Health Organization

27 August 2015 –– The World Health Organization (WHO) today unveiled a global plan to better integrate water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) services with four other public health interventions to accelerate progress in eliminating and eradicating neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) by 2020.

International Trachoma Initiative (ITI)

International Trachoma Initiative (ITI)

“Millions suffer from devastating WASH-related neglected tropical diseases – such as soil-transmitted helminthiasis, guinea-worm disease, trachoma and schistosomiasis – all of which affect mainly children” said Dr Maria Neira, WHO Director for Public Health, Environmental and Social Determinants of Health. “Solutions exist, such as access to safe water, managing human excreta, improving hygiene, and enhancing targeted environmental management. Such improvements not only lead to improved health, but also reduce poverty.”

Related links

Targeted water and sanitation interventions are expected to bolster ongoing efforts in tackling 16 out of the 17 NTDs, which affect more than 1 billion of the world’s poorest and most vulnerable populations.

Continue reading

WASHplus Weekly: Focus on WASH & Innovation

Issue 204 | August 28, 2015 | Focus on WASH & Innovation

This issue features some of the many innovative water supply, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) programs, products, and services that are currently underway. Please contact WASHplus if you have other innovative resources that we can include in a future issue on innovation. Included are resources from WASHplus, the Global Public-Private Partnership for Handwashing, USAID, DFID, and others. Also included are recent videos on sanitation in floating communities, information on Shit Flow Diagrams, the SlingShot water purification system, sanitation innovation through design, and innovative financing methods.

WASHPLUS | GLOBAL PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP FOR HANDWASHING | USAID RESOURCES

Breaking the Cycle: Small Doable Actions in WASH to Improve Child Health. J Rosenbaum, WASHplus; FHI 360. Video
WASHplus’s Julia Rosenbaum discusses the power of small doable actions in WASH programs. This approach to behavior change encourages households to adopt feasible actions and enabling technologies to move them toward ideal hygiene and sanitation practices.

Handwashing and the Science of Habit Webinar, 2015. Webinar
USAID/WASHplus and the PPPHW co-hosted a webinar with David Neal, Ph.D., from Catalyst Behavior Sciences and the University of Miami. In this webinar, Dr. Neal emphasized ways to apply the basic science of habit and behavior change to real world health interventions and program delivery, with a focus on behavior change for handwashing with soap.

USAID Development Innovation Ventures (DIV). Website | Ensuring Access to Safe Water
DIV is an open competition supporting breakthrough solutions to the world’s most intractable development challenges—interventions that could change millions of lives at a fraction of the usual cost. The Ensuring Access to Safe Water section of the DIV website has summaries of three projects: Bringing Safe Water to Scale, Monitoring Clean Drinking Water through Technology and Open Data, and Making Water Filtration Affordable for Kenyan Households.

WORLD WATER WEEK 2015 RESOURCES

Financing for Development: Innovative Financial Mechanisms for the Post-2015 Agenda. World Water Week 2015. Video
This session discusses how to generate an enabling environment and targets questions such as: What innovative financing mechanisms must be developed to achieve the water-related Sustainable Development Goals? What are the existing strategies already addressing this issue? What can we learn from other sectors and regions?

Vote for Your Favorite Water Idea, 2015. Link
As part of World Water Week 2015, people can vote for one of ten innovative ways to conserve and manage water resources.

DFID RESOURCES

Can Innovation Prizes Help Address Water and Sanitation Challenges? 2015. S Trémolet. Link
This paper helps identify how innovation prizes can be used to address intractable issues in the WASH sector. It also presents a number of areas where innovation prizes could be used to either trigger genuine innovation or promote scaling up of existing innovations in the WASH sector.

Continue reading

The disgust box: a novel approach to illustrate water contamination with feces

Below are links to 5 Aug 2015 studies on digust, handwashing and maternal mortality, handwashing and NTDs, water quality awareness and breastfeeding and household characteristics and diarrhea.

The disgust box: a novel approach to illustrate water contamination with feces. Health & Science Bulletin, June 2015.

Link: http://goo.gl/3xDeen

Inadequate drinking water, sanitation and hand hygiene are responsible for approximately 800,000 deaths per year in low and middle-income countries. We evaluated the benefits of a behaviour change communication method to motivate water treatment practices in urban low income communities in Dhaka. We used a device called the ‘Disgust Box’ to provide a vivid demonstration of how piped water is contaminated with faeces to motivate people to chlorinate water. Most of the respondents were able to recall the demonstration at both four-month and one year qualitative assessments. At four months, the majority of participants stated that they still felt disgusted by the demonstration and mentioned it as a motivator for water chlorination. However, after one year, despite being able to recall the demonstration, disgust was no longer mentioned as a motivator to chlorinate water. The Disgust Box has the potential to be an effective communication method to motivate water treatment but additional research is necessary to establish a more sustainable approach to reinforce behaviour change.

Using Observational Data to Estimate the Effect of Hand Washing and Clean Delivery Kit Use by Birth Attendants on Maternal Deaths after Home Deliveries in Rural Bangladesh, India and Nepal. PLoS One, Aug 2015. Authors: Nadine Seward, et al.

Link: http://goo.gl/02uiRi

Our evidence suggests that hand washing in delivery is critical for maternal survival among home deliveries in rural South Asia, although the exact magnitude of this effect is uncertain due to inherent biases associated with observational data from low resource settings. Our findings indicating kit use does not improve maternal survival, suggests that the soap is not being used in all instances that kit use is being reported.

Assessment of water, sanitation, and hygiene practices and associated factors in a Buruli ulcer endemic district in Benin (West Africa). BMC Public Health, Aug 2015.

Link: http://goo.gl/CZvJPJ

BU is an important conditions in the district of Lalo with 917 new cases detected from 2006 to 2012. More than 49 % of the household surveyed used unimproved water sources for their daily needs. Only 8.7 % of the investigated household had improved sanitation facilities at home and 9.7 % had improved hygiene behavior. The type of housing as an indicator of the socioeconomic status, the permanent availability of soap and improved hygiene practices were identified as the main factors positively associated with improved sanitation status.

Continue reading

Overview of sustainable sanitation events at the World Water Week in Stockholm

FlyerThe Secretariat of the Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA) has compiled a flyer of all SuSanA events and partner of SuSanA events during the World Water Week which is now available for download. This will help you to get an overview of many exciting sessions and events around sustainable sanitation!

For all those, who are not able to go to Stockholm, we will livestream the 20th SuSanA meeting on Saturday 22 August.

Please follow this link for more information and to watch the livestream: http://www.susana.org/en/events/susana-meetings/2015/421-20th-susana-meeting-Stockholm

Aug 10 – Weekly Update of Selected WASH Studies

Effectiveness of emergency water treatment practices in refugee camps in South Sudan. WHO Bulletin, Aug 2015. Authors: Syed Imran Ali, Syed Saad Ali & Jean-Francois Fesselet.
Link: http://goo.gl/BtnQVh

Current guidelines for free residual chlorine in emergency water supplies are not based on field evidence and offer inadequate protection after distribution in refugee camps in South Sudan. We recommend that the free residual chlorine guideline be increased to 1.0 mg/L in all situations, irrespective of disease outbreak, pH, or turbidity conditions. This is a tentative recommendation because the degree to which these findings can be generalized to other camps in different settings is unknown.

Nutrition in Ethiopia: An emerging success story? Author: Headey, Derek D.
Link: https://goo.gl/tmMCqX

Research does not always provide the results that we expect. At the recent conference on improving nutrition in Ethiopia, Together for Nutrition 2015, we learnt about the rapid progress in Ethiopia in child nutritional outcomes that are linked to improved birth size and, hence, improved maternal health. However, most of the improvement in maternal health seems related to better sanitation, rather than to diet, care, or health factors.

Diet and specific microbial exposure trigger features of environmental enteropathy in a novel murine model. Nature Communications, Aug 2015. Authors: Eric M. Brown, et al.
Link: http://goo.gl/Sgx6XP

Here we demonstrate that early-life consumption of a moderately malnourished diet, in combination with iterative oral exposure to commensal Bacteroidales species and Escherichia coli, remodels the murine small intestine to resemble features of EE observed in humans. We further report the profound changes that malnutrition imparts on the small intestinal microbiota, metabolite and intraepithelial lymphocyte composition, along with the susceptibility to enteric infection. Our findings provide evidence indicating that both diet and microbes combine to contribute to the aetiology of EE, and describe a novel murine model that can be used to elucidate the mechanisms behind this understudied disease.

An internet-delivered handwashing intervention to modify influenza-like illness and respiratory infection transmission (PRIMIT): a primary care randomised trial. The Lancet, Aug 2015. Authors: Paul Little, Beth Stuart, et al.
Link: http://goo.gl/hHLnLI

Handwashing to prevent transmission of respiratory tract infections (RTIs) has been widely advocated, especially during the H1N1 pandemic. However, the role of handwashing is debated, and no good randomised evidence exists among adults in non-deprived settings. We aimed to assess whether an internet-delivered intervention to modify handwashing would reduce the number of RTIs among adults and their household members.

Associations between school- and household-level water, sanitation and hygiene conditions and soil-transmitted helminth infection among Kenyan school children. Parasit Vectors. 2015 Aug. Authors: Freeman MC, Chard AN, et al.
Link: http://goo.gl/HkdIyS

Results suggest mixed impacts of household and school WASH on prevalence and intensity of infection. WASH risk factors differed across individual worm species, which is expected given the different mechanisms of infection. No trend of the relative importance of school versus household-level WASH emerged, though some factors, like water supply were more strongly related to lower infection, which suggests it is important in supporting other school practices, such as hand-washing and keeping school toilets clean.

Modelling Optimal Control of Cholera in Communities Linked by Migration. Comput Math MethodsMed. 2015. Authors: Njagarah JB, Nyabadza F
Link: http://goo.gl/VU6I5G

A mathematical model for the dynamics of cholera transmission with permissible controls between two connected communities is developed and analysed. The dynamics of the disease in the adjacent communities are assumed to be similar, with the main differences only reflected in the transmission and disease related parameters. This assumption is based on the fact that adjacent communities often have different living conditions and movement is inclined toward the community with better living conditions. Our results indicate that implementation of controls such as proper hygiene, sanitation, and vaccination across both affected communities is likely to annihilate the infection within half the time it would take through self-limitation. In addition, although an infection may still break out in the presence of controls, it may be up to 8 times less devastating when compared with the case when no controls are in place.

Community-led Total Sanitation in Cambodia: Findings from an Implementation Case Study

Community-led Total Sanitation in Cambodia: Findings from an Implementation Case Study, 2015.

This learning brief shares key findings from a case study of community-led total sanitation (CLTS) implementation in Plan International Cambodia program areas, focusing on the roles and responsibilities of local actors. Several implications are relevant for consideration by Plan International Cambodia and other sanitation practitioners. cambodia-brief-cover-255x300

The brief is part of the CLTS Learning Series, a collection of seven country case studies on CLTS implementation prepared by The Water Institute at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill as part of the Plan International USA project, Testing CLTS Approaches for ScalabilityThe 4-page brief is based on the 40-page Cambodia Country Report.

UNICEF Consultancy Assignment: Support for Private Sector Development of Low-Cost Sanitation Products

UNICEF’s Eastern and Southern Africa Regional Office (ESARO) has recently engaged with a global private sector partner to conduct market research and test improved sanitation products with end-users. The intended outcomes of the project are: 1) detailed market information on the needs of the “base of the pyramid” (including both functionality of the products and price point); 2) a more thorough understanding of sanitation marketing techniques and the supply chain for difficult–to-reach communities; and 3) more appropriate and affordable sanitation products available on the local market

UNICEF is now seeking a consultant to document the ESARO project, conduct a lessons learned, and develop a standard methodology that can be replicated in other regions and countries. Depending on interest and commitment from WASH staff, the project envisions applying the methodology in other regional and country office programmes and their respective private sector partners.

For for information on this 6-month consultancy and how to apply for it please go to: http://www.unicef.org/about/employ/index_82546.html

The deadline is  29 July 5:00pm CET.