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Focus on Community-Led Total Sanitation – Water Currents, April 18, 2017

Focus on Community-Led Total Sanitation – Water Currents, April 18, 2017

Welcome to the inaugural external issue of Water Currents, a biweekly publication from USAID’s Water Teamwatercurrents

Water Currents aims to replace the WASHplus Weekly, which ceased publication in 2016 when the WASHplus Project ended.

Each issue of Water Currents will have a special focus on a featured topic, as well as an update on recent water sector news.

This issue highlights community-led total sanitation (CLTS), including selected 2017 reports and articles on the subject, as well as coverage on open defecation and behavior change and recent CLTS videos. Our “In the News” section features recent articles on household water treatment, WASH training materials and other water matters.

Articles and Reports
Keeping Track: CLTS Monitoring, Certification and Verification. IDS, January 2017. These critical elements of the CLTS process ensure the sustainability of open defecation free achievements and support the behavior change education necessary to improve CLTS implementation.

Local Governance and Sanitation: Eight Lessons from Uganda. Global Sanitation Fund (GSF), April 2017. This case study presents eight lessons learned from the GSF-supported Uganda Sanitation Fund on coordinating, planning, and implementing CLTS at scale through a decentralized government system.

View the complete issue/subscribe.

E4C Webinar | Empowering Citizens Through Technology to Reduce Marine Plastic Pollution

E4C Webinar | Empowering Citizens Through Technology to Reduce  Marine Plastic Pollution. Presented by Barent Roth, Sustainable Designer/Educator/Activis. 

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Barent Roth, Sustainable Designer/Educator/Activist

In less than a 100 years we have contaminated all of our oceans with plastic. An estimate in 2014 put the amount at 270,000 metric tons of plastic in the water, which is the total weight of 5.25 trillion pieces. And the numbers are growing. But before we begin cleaning our oceans, we need to cut the pollution off at its source.

TestingOurWaters.Net empowers citizen scientists to track and prevent marine plastic pollution by designing and distributing easy to build, inexpensive, Do-It-Yourself (DIY) trawls. Hang these trawls off of a bridge, boat or shoreline and collect plastic trash in the water to help identify where it is coming from. With that knowledge we can begin to prevent it from entering our water in the first place.

This webinar will introduce the project and share various trawl designs and techniques for engaged citizens looking to take action and protect our oceans. Join this webinar to:

  • Understand the scope of the marine plastic pollution problem
  • Learn how to build inexpensive DIY citizen science trawls
  • Learn how to trawl from various situations (boat, bridge, shoreline)
  • Document your findings from trawling expeditions
  • Design your own citizen science trawls

Where: This is an online event. Register here

When: Tuesday, April 25, 2017 at 11:00 AM EDT  (convert to your time)

 

Webinar – Involving The Private Sector In Increasing Access To Basic Sanitation In Bihar And Abidjan

Webinar – Involving The Private Sector In Increasing Access To Basic Sanitation In Bihar And Abidjan 

Wednesday, 12 April 2017 | 3 – 4 pm GMT | 11 am – 12 noon Eastern Time

About our market-based models:

Only 22% of Abidjan’s population has access to basic sanitation. Many low-income residents of the city live in compound houses of 4 to 45 persons, who share a common toilet. The situation is not too different in Bihar where only 30% of the population have access to basic sanitation, and open defecation is still rife. webinar

This webinar explores successes and failures of the strategies from:

  • the USAID Sanitation Service Delivery (SSD) program’s Healthy Compound model in Abidjan, which is using a total market approach to develop prefabricated septic tanks made of ferrocement; and
  • the Supporting Sustainable Sanitation (3Si) project in Bihar, which has used a market-based approach to overcome supply and demand barriers to latrine access and use.

Presenters:

  • Bikas Sinha is 3Si’s General Manager for Programs. He will introduce the 3Si project and strategy and outline the milestones and learning.
  • Lassina Togola is USAID SSD’s sanitation Technical Advisor in Abidjan. He will offer first-hand experience of progress, lessons and challenges to date regarding the Healthy Compound model.
  • Dana Ward is SSD’s Chief of Party. He will introduce the discussion and set the context for providing affordable sanitation through the private sector.

Active trachoma and community use of sanitation, Ethiopia

Active trachoma and community use of sanitation, Ethiopia. WHO Bulletin, April 2017.

Objective – To investigate, in Amhara, Ethiopia, the association between prevalence of active trachoma among children aged 1–9 years and community sanitation usage.

Methods – Between 2011 and 2014, prevalence of trachoma and household pit latrine usage were measured in five population-based cross-sectional surveys.

Data on observed indicators of latrine use were aggregated into a measure of community sanitation usage calculated as the proportion of households with a latrine in use. blt-logo

All household members were examined for clinical signs, i.e. trachomatous inflammation, follicular and/or intense, indicative of active trachoma.

Multilevel logistic regression was used to estimate prevalence odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), adjusting for community, household and individual factors, and to evaluate modification by household latrine use and water access.

Findings – In surveyed areas, prevalence of active trachoma among children was estimated to be 29% (95% CI: 28–30) and mean community sanitation usage was 47% (95% CI: 45–48). Despite significant modification (p < 0.0001), no pattern in stratified ORs was detected.

Summarizing across strata, community sanitation usage values of 60 to < 80% and ≥ 80% were associated with lower prevalence odds of active trachoma, compared with community sanitation usage of < 20% (OR: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.57–1.03 and OR: 0.67; 95% CI: 0.48–0.95, respectively).

Conclusion – In Amhara, Ethiopia, a negative correlation was observed between community sanitation usage and prevalence of active trachoma among children, highlighting the need for continued efforts to encourage higher levels of sanitation usage and to support sustained use throughout the community, not simply at the household level.

Could alternative sanitation help South Africa’s water security?

Could alternative sanitation help SA’s water security? Infrastructure News, April 3, 2017.

As the 30th driest country in the world, South Africa is facing greater water security challenges with increasing periods of drought and unpredictable rainfall patterns.

According to a case study on alternative sanitation for water security done by Tomorrow Matters Now, 19.5% of South Africans are still without an improved sanitation service and 4.9% of South Africans have no access to sanitation. Caption-2-Knight-Piesold-768x510

For 60% of water management systems, water demand is overtaken by supply, while 98% of our available water resources are already being used. At the same time, South Africa’s water and sanitation infrastructure is crumbling because of a chronic lack of investment.

Local municipalities are faced with these challenges and its effects on a daily basis.

Some of these include the age old problems of institutional or financial shortcomings and capacity constraints, a delay in sanitation services linked to a delay in housing, and the continued maintenance and improvement of basic sanitation.

Waste management has also become an increasing problem with water treatment plants having released raw sewage into rivers in the past due to poor management and maintenance backlogs.

The case study found the need for alternative means of sanitation.

Providing universal access to conventional waterborne sanitation is one of government’s biggest challenges, and the critical aspects of hygiene and dignity, as well as a healthy and resilient environment need to be addressed.

The study said that ‘flushing’ cannot be the solution as we cannot continue to use clean, potable water to flush waste. “We need game-changing new technologies which require little or no water,” the findings suggested.

Read the complete article.

Unjela Kaleem joins WSSCC as Head of External Affairs, Communications and Coordination

UnjelaThe Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council (WSSCC) is pleased to announce Ms. Unjela Kaleem as its new Head of External Affairs, Communications and Coordination.

Ms. Kaleem comes to WSSCC with high-level expertise in all aspects of corporate communications, public affairs, corporate sustainability and stakeholder engagement, with associative experience in consumer insights and brand communications planning. She has extensive global experience in successfully leading in senior management roles with key fast-moving consumer goods (FMCG) companies such as Nestle, public sector actors such as the Pakistan Poverty Alleviation Fund, and multilateral organizations such as the World Bank.

Ms. Kaleem brings to WSSCC multidimensional outcome-driven management skills in converting actions into results and delivering on time. Her diverse skills set, international experience and leadership abilities make her well-suited to diverse cultural settings, such as in the UN-based WSSCC.

“WSSCC’s work today is guided by the Sustainable Development Goals, especially those which aim to improve equal access to sanitation and hygiene and which deliver better health, education and gender equity outcomes,” says Christopher W. Williams, WSSCC’s Executive Director. “Ms. Kaleem will be crucial in our efforts to position the organization as a leading development stakeholder. Our work to support countries to increase access through the Global Sanitation Fund, on policies and action around menstrual hygiene management, and in engaging our members and other stakeholders, will all benefit from her expertise.”

At WSSCC, Ms. Kaleem serves on the Senior Management Team and leads a department of 12 people representing 11 different nationalities. The organization has embarked upon an ambitious new WSSCC Strategy 2017-2020 which, among other goals, aims to empower 12 million people to achieve safe sanitation in the next four years.

Duncan Mara – The elimination of open defecation and its adverse health effects: a moral imperative for governments and development professionals

The elimination of open defecation and its adverse health effects: a moral imperative for governments and development professionalsJournal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development, February 2017. 1.cover-source

In 2015 there were 965 million people in the world forced to practise open defecation (OD). The adverse health effects of OD are many: acute effects include infectious intestinal diseases, including diarrheal diseases which are exacerbated by poor water supplies, sanitation and hygiene; adverse pregnancy outcomes; and life-threatening violence against women and girls.

Chronic effects include soil-transmitted helminthiases, increased anaemia, giardiasis, environmental enteropathy and small intestine bacterial overgrowth, and stunting and long-term impaired cognition. If OD elimination by 2030 is to be accelerated, then a clear understanding is needed of what prevents and what drives the transition from OD to using a latrine.

Sanitation marketing, behaviour change communication, and ‘enhanced’ community-led total sanitation (‘CLTSþ ’), supplemented by ‘nudging’, are the three most likely joint strategies to enable communities, both rural and periurban, to become completely OD-free and remain so.

It will be a major Sanitation Challenge to achieve the elimination of OD by 2030, but helping the poorest currently plagued by OD and its serious adverse health effects should be our principal task as we seek to achieve the sanitation target of the Sustainable Development Goals – indeed it is a moral imperative for all governments and development professionals.