Category Archives: Uncategorized

Safe toilets help flush out disease in Cambodia’s floating communities

Safe toilets help flush out disease in Cambodia’s floating communities. The Guardian, February 15, 2017.

Open defecation in villages on Tonlé Sap lake contributes to sickness, pollution and drownings. Now, a pathogen-filtering toilet looks set to change lives

An excerpt: Taber Hand, founder and director of Wetlands Work, says the concentration of pathogens like E coli can fluctuate from about 200-400 units per 100ml of water to as much as 4,000 units per 100ml in the dry season. When the levels of pathogens are that concentrated, he says, “it’s septic”.

handypod

The HandyPod system behind Hakley Ke’s floating house in Phat Sanday commune, on the Tonlé Sap lake. Photograph: Lauren Crothers for the Guardian

In 2009, he began designing the HandyPod; a simple, two-container system that filters pathogens out of wastewater. He says the version in use by nine households and a school today, priced at $125 (£100), is the most cost-effective.

The system is gravitational. With each flush – achieved by pouring a ladle of water into the toilet bowl – waste is collected in the first of two containers, where it settles and is broken down using anaerobic processes over a three-day period, and the pathogen reduction begins.

The second barrel is packed with small pieces of polystyrene, which triggers a process that reduces the levels of the remaining bacteria. Each flush also forces the newly treated water back into the river, where it will pass the test for safe levels of pathogens for recreational water just one metre beyond the discharge point.

Read the complete article.

Pit Latrine Fecal Sludge Resistance Using a Dynamic Cone Penetrometer in Low Income Areas in Mzuzu City, Malawi

Pit Latrine Fecal Sludge Resistance Using a Dynamic Cone Penetrometer in Low Income Areas in Mzuzu City, Malawi. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(2), 87; doi:10.3390/ijerph14020087

Pit latrines can provide improved household sanitation, but without effective and inexpensive emptying options, they are often abandoned once full and may pose a public health threat.

Emptying techniques can be difficult, as the sludge contents of each pit latrine are different. The design of effective emptying techniques (e.g., pumps) is limited by a lack of data characterizing typical in situ latrine sludge resistance.

This investigation aimed to better understand the community education and technical engineering needs necessary to improve pit latrine management. In low income areas within Mzuzu city, Malawi, 300 pit latrines from three distinct areas were assessed using a dynamic cone penetrometer to quantify fecal sludge strength, and household members were surveyed to determine their knowledge of desludging procedures and practices likely to impact fecal sludge characteristics.

The results demonstrate that there is a significant difference in sludge strength between lined and unlined pits within a defined area, though sludge hardened with depth, regardless of the pit type or region. There was only limited association between cone penetration depth and household survey data.

To promote the adoption of pit emptying, it is recommended that households be provided with information that supports pit emptying, such as latrine construction designs, local pit emptying options, and cost.

This study indicates that the use of a penetrometer test in the field prior to pit latrine emptying may facilitate the selection of appropriate pit emptying technology.

Living standards lag behind economic growth

Living standards lag behind economic growth. Eureka Alert, February 13, 2017.

As incomes rise in developing countries, access to basic amenities such as electricity, clean cooking energy, water, and sanitation, also improves–but not uniformly, and not as quickly as income growth, according to a new study published in the journal Environmental Research Letters. The study looked at historical rates of energy access compared to other living standards and GDP.

“What we found is that income growth alone isn’t enough on its own to get these basic necessities to all people in society,” explains IIASA researcher Narasimha D. Rao, who led the study.

The researchers also found that access to clean cooking energy and sanitation lagged behind access to electricity and water, a finding which has an outsize impact on the poorest members of society, and especially on women.

“Women bear the brunt of health risks that come from cooking with solid fuels, as well as from lack of sanitation, because women are predominantly responsible for cooking and household work,” explains IIASA researcher Shonali Pachauri, who also worked on the study.

Read the complete article.

5 Offbeat Toilets India Should Adopt To Fight Sanitation Problems

5 Offbeat Toilets India Should Adopt To Fight Sanitation Problems. Swach India, February 2017.

In the era of ‘Swachh Bharat Abhiyan’, issues like open defecation and human waste are getting attention from a large section of our society. Building public toilets that not only define innovation but are also user friendly and cost effective is the need of the hour. In our country 47 percent of people still defecate in the open, and these creative ideas can definitely fight this social problem.

Here is a list of 5 innovative toilets that India can adopt to address the problems of sanitation. 5offbeattoiletsindiashouldadopttofightsanitationproblems11

Solar Powered Urine Diversion (SPUD) Toilets: Having the qualities of affordability, and user-friendly, this toilet is 100% waterless and chemical-free and can be easily installed in rural parts of India. Highlight- Human waste turns into manure.

Portable Tent Toilets: It’s an earth friendly, convenient and portable solution to open defecation in slums. The waste is collected in a biodegradable bag that contains ‘ChemiSan,’ a material that helps to deodorize and decompose the waste. Highlight- Helps in saving water.

Read the complete article.

Trading in trash: Nairobi’s e-waste entrepreneurs – in pictures

Trading in trash: Nairobi’s e-waste entrepreneurs – in pictures. The Guardian, February 1, 2017.

From small-scale traders to a company processing hundreds of tonnes of e-waste, we explore Nairobi’s relationship with a burgeoning waste stream and visit the people turning it into a resource. Photographs and words by Nathan Siegel.  nairobi

John Obanda, who owns a repair shop, fixes a broken motherboard. Obanda sources items from collectors who work in nearby landfill sites and is one of thousands of traders who buy and recycle discarded electrical and electronic goods in Nairobi.

E-waste has ballooned in the city in the past decade due to rising mobile phone penetration and a burgeoning middle class.

Read the complete article.

Information on fecal sludge management

4th International Faecal Sludge Management Conference (FSM4), February 19-23, Chennai, India. FSM4 will focus on innovative and practical solutions that can be scaled up, including three tracks: research, case studies, and industry and exhibition.

Sanitation Service Delivery (SSD) Program – Ghana, Ivory Coast and BeninSustainable Sanitation Alliance, November 2016. SSD is a USAID/West Africa urban sanitation project implemented in Cote d’Ivoire, Benin, and Ghana. The project aims to improve sanitation outcomes through developing and testing scalable, market-based models that contribute to structural change within the region’s sanitation sector. Several posts to this forum discuss the SSD program and provide links to SSD’s reports and webinars.

Fecal Sludge Management ToolsThe World Bank, June 2016. The World Bank has developed some tools to diagnose fecal sludge management (FSM) status and to guide decisionmaking. These tools do not provide predefined solutions, as the many variables and stakeholders involved demand interventions that are specific to each city and should be seen within the context of integrated urban water management.

Faecal Waste Flow CalculatorIRC WASH, 2016. The tool is developed to determine fecal waste volumes along the entire service chain, allowing city planners, service authorities, or any other users to determine where the biggest losses are and where interventions should be targeted. Less easily quantifiable issues such as the existence of policies and legislation, availability and transparency of plans and budgets, and presence and adherence to environmental and safety standards are captured with the use of score cards.

Fecal Sludge Management in MadagascarWASHplus, March 2016. This video discusses how USAID’s WASHplus project engaged the international NGO Practica to design and pilot a private-sector service delivery model to sustainably manage fecal sludge generated in the peri-urban area of Ambositra using low-cost decentralized technologies.

2016 WEDC Conference Presentations on Fecal Sludge ManagementSanitation Updates, August 2016. This post has links to each of the eight WEDC 2016 conference presentations on fecal sludge management, topics include analysis of fecal sludge collection efficiency and overcoming capacity gaps in fecal sludge management through education and training.

Smaller is Better when Investing in Fecal Sludge Management in AsiaAsian Development Blog, August 2016. This article discusses small wastewater projects that differ from the bank’s traditional approach of focusing on developing bigger centralized systems that involve large, extensive wastewater networks and infrastructure.

Is There Fecal Sludge on Your Salad? IWA Network, January 2017. This article discusses the Sanitation Safety Planning tool that helps optimize the reuse of wastewater, grey water, and excreta.

SFD toolboxSustainable Sanitation Alliance, January 2017. An excreta flow diagram (also often described as shit flow diagram, SFD) is a tool to readily understand and communicate visualizing how excreta physically flows through a city or town.

Assessing Public Health Risks from Unsafe Fecal Sludge Management in Poor Urban Neighborhoods: What Does SaniPath Tell Us about Exposure to Fecal Contamination in 12 Neighborhoods in 3 Cities? Sanipath, August 2016. This presentation compares the latest results of the SaniPath Study from three different study sites: Accra, Ghana; Vellore, India; and Maputo, Mozambique, and discusses the reliability of the SaniPath Tool data.

SuSanA webinar: Learning from experiences in urban and rural sanitation marketing, Feb 15th, 15:30 CET (Stockholm time)

Please join us a SuSanA webinar on ‘Learning from experiences in urban and rural sanitation marketing’ scheduled for Wednesday February 15th 2017 at 15:30 CET (Stockholm time).

Overview:

The term “sanitation marketing” has come to mean different things to different people. In this webinar, we will explore two different approaches to sanitation marketing, one in the urban context, and one in rural areas.

Simon Okoth of the Water Services Trust Fund in Kenya will provide insights on the key elements of success in the Up-Scaling Basic Sanitation for the Urban Poor (UBSUP) programmme in urban, low-income areas of Kenya. The UBSUP sanitation social marketing approach is an elaborate marketing methodology that aims to improve access to basic sanitation services and is built along the entire sanitation chain. It targets, both the households and tenants, the policy makers, the service providers (water service providers) and entrepreneurs (private sector) with targeted messages to inspire them to play their roles in improving sanitation services for the residents of urban low income areas. The approach is established around 10 critical Ps (people, place, product, price, participation, promotion, policy, programs, positioning and partnerships).

Greg Lestikow of iDE will then delve into his organization’s rural sanitation marketing work in several countries. Although iDE’s approach differs by country, each program is driven by the common principles of designing solutions to context and building both supply capacity and consumer demand for sanitation solutions. Mr. Lestikow will outline critical program components and present techniques for measuring and improving sustainability as market-based sanitation programs reach scale.

Presenters:
Simon Okoth is a WASH specialist and Urban Investment Manager at the Kenya Water Services Trust Fund in Kenya. He has extensive knowledge and experience in areas spanning across WASH programmes, concepts development, programming, implementation, monitoring and evaluation.

Greg Lestikow is iDE’s WASH Innovation and Performance Manager. He brings his background in development economics and rigorous evaluation to support iDE’s seven WASH country programs, which together have facilitated the sale of over 450,000 hygienic latrines

Schedule: The webinar will last approximately 1 hour with two presentations and an open discussion with webinar participants. We will also open the session 30 minutes beforehand so you can test your video or microphone and meet other participants.

The webinar is being hosted by Stockholm Environment Institute and the SuSanA secretariat as part of a grant to SEI funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

Time:
New Delhi, India Wed, 15 Feb 2017 at 20:00 IST
New York, USA Wed, 15 Feb 2017 at 09:30 EST
Nairobi, Kenya Wed, 15 Feb 2017 at 17:30 EAT
Hanoi, Vietnam Wed, 15 Feb 2017 at 21:30 ICT
London, United Kingdom Wed, 15 Feb 2017 at 14:30 GMT

To join the webinar please follow this link: seint.adobeconnect.com/seiwebinar/
To register to receive reminders please follow this link: www.susana.org/en/webinar-registration