Tag Archives: Brazil

Brazil official links inadequate sanitation to Zika outbreak

Brazil official links inadequate sanitation to Zika outbreak | Source: Yahoo News, Feb 11, 2016 |

RIO DE JANEIRO (AP) — Brazil’s minister of cities says there is a “strong link” between the country’s woeful sanitation system and the current outbreak of the mosquito-borne Zika virus.

Gilberto Kassab said Wednesday that while the country has made progress over the past decade, sewage and water delivery systems leave “much to be desired,” and promised that basic sanitation will continue to be a government priority.

Sewage often flows through open channels into stagnant waters, and a lack of piped water service leads many Brazilians to rely on tanks that create a habitat for the Aedes aegypti mosquito that transmits Zika, which has been linked to a rare birth defect called microcephaly which can leave babies with long-lasting health and developmental problems.

Kassab conceded the virus spread “has a strong link with the absence of sanitation,” in quotes carried by the O Estado de S. Paulo daily.

His comments came at a news conference in the capital by the National Conference of Brazilian Bishops, which issued a statement blasting the government over water treatment, sewage and the collection of rubbish. The conference’s head, Sergio da Rocha, said “the lack of basic sanitation is among the principal causes for the proliferation of mosquitoes.”

Trata Brasil, a Sao Paulo-based pro-sanitation organization, says 35 million Brazilians, or around 18 percent of the population, do not have regular access to tap water. The group estimates that more than 60 percent of sewage nationwide flows untreated into waterways and onto the country’s famed beaches.

Sanitation has become a hot-button issue here ahead of this year’s Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro as officials have acknowledged they will be unable to fulfill promises to clean up waterways where aquatic sports are to be held. An Associated Press investigation last year found Rio’s Olympic water venues are rife with sewage, with such high viral levels that experts say they represent a serious health risk to the approximately 1,400 Olympic athletes slated to compete in them.

Brazil: toilet protest on Ipanema beach against sewage pollution

In the wake of the World Cup and the Olympics, activists in Brazil are taking to the streets (and the beaches) demanding more investment in neglected public services like sanitation. Activist group Meu Rio (My Rio)  sat on lavatories on Ipanema beach in Rio de Janeiro to raise awareness about the dumping of untreated sewage into the sea. The group also laid out coloured silhouettes of common bacteria found in sewage on the sand.

My Rio sanitation protest poster

Some 70% of Rio’s sewage is said to be untreated as it flows into the sea off the beaches of Copacabana, Ipanema and the Guanabara Bay, which will host several events at the 2016 Olympics and Paralympics. Source: Sky News, 26 Jan 2014

New WSP/World Bank report shows catalytic potential of factoring political economy into sanitation investments

A better understanding of a county’s political and social processes and entities that determine the extent and nature of investments in sanitation could catalyze a sharp increase in numbers of people with access, especially for the poor, according to a new report released by the World Bank and the Water and Sanitation Program (WSP).

Recent World Bank research shows that the current limited focus on sanitation is driven largely by political motivation in the context of competing demands for resources, and to a lesser extent by technical or economic considerations.

Based on an analysis of experiences in Brazil, India, Indonesia, and Senegal, The Political Economy of Sanitation, proposes an approach to address the political economy of sanitation in a given country in order to more effectively advocate with policy makers to invest more and to better target services for poor people.

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Impact of a City-Wide Sanitation Programme in Northeast Brazil

Environ Health Perspect. 2010 Aug 12.

Impact of a City-Wide Sanitation Programme in Northeast Brazil on Intestinal Parasites Infection in Young Children.

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Barreto ML, et al.

Background: Sanitation affects health, especially of young children. Residents of Salvador, in Northeast Brazil had a high prevalence of intestinal parasites. A city-wide sanitation intervention started in 1996 aimed to raise the level of sewer coverage from 26% to 80% of households. We present the results of a study to evaluate the impact of this intervention on the prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichuria and Giardia duodenalis infections in pre-school children.

Methods: The evaluation was composed of two cross-sectional studies (1998 and 2003-4), each of a sample of 681 and 976 children aged 1-4 years, respectively. Children were sampled from 24 sentinel areas chosen to represent the range of environmental conditions in the study site. Data were collected using an individual/household questionnaire, and an environmental survey was conducted in each area before and after the intervention to assess basic household and neighborhood sanitation conditions. Stool samples were examined for the presence of intestinal parasites. The effect of the intervention was estimated by hierarchical modelling, fitting a sequence of multivariate regression models.

Findings: The prevalence of A. lumbricoides infection was reduced from 24.4% to 12.0%, T. trichuria from 18.0% to 5.0% and G. duodenalis from 14.1% to 5.3%. Most of this reduction appeared to be explained by the increased coverage of each neighborhood by the sewerage system constructed during the intervention. The key explanatory variable was thus an ecological measure of exposure and not household-based, suggesting that the parasite transmission prevented by the program was mainly in the public (as opposed to the domestic) domain.

Conclusion: This study, using advanced statistical modelling to control for individual and ecological potential confounders, demonstrates the impact on intestinal parasites of sanitation improvements implemented at the scale of a large population.

Brazil, Rio Grande do Norte: Caern to increase Natal sanitation coverage for 2014 World Cup

Brazil’s Rio Grande do Norte state water utility Caern intends to improve its sewage collection coverage in state capital Natal from 33% to 73% in time for the 2014 World Cup, the utility reported in a release.

The service boost will lift the city out of its poor sewage collection ranking among World Cup host cities, according to Marcelo Cortes Neri, head of the center for social research for economic thinktank Fundação Getúlio Vargas (FGV).

“Natal has the lowest sewerage coverage service of all the 2014 World Cup host cities,” Cortes Neri said at a press conference.

A study carried out earlier this year by NGO Instituto Trata Brasil (ITB) in cooperation with FGV analyzed sanitation services in the host cities, revealing that Manaus (Amazonas state), Porto Alegre (Rio Grande do Sul) and Natal have the lowest sanitation coverage.

Funding

Caern intends to invest 323.7mn reais (US$186mn) in sanitation projects, of which 283.3mn reais will be spent on improving the city’s sewerage system and 40.4mn reais will be invested in its water supply network.

In addition to this investment, the utility is requesting 216mn reais in funding from the country’s growth acceleration plan (PAC), from programs such as the Saneamento para Todos (sanitation for everyone) program, the national tourism development program Prodetur and the national health foundation.

Resources will also come from the federal budget and the tourism ministry.

The funding will enable Natal to reach 73% sewerage collection coverage, with southern Natal expected to reach 100% coverage.

Projects underway

Caern’s Baldo central wastewater treatment plant is expected to begin operations in March 2010 treating wastewater in 21 neighborhoods.

The utility is also constructing the Jundiaí treatment plant and the Barreira do Inferno underwater pipeline, which aim to solve the lack of sewage collection services in southern Natal.

The city will also receive three new potable water pipelines totaling 6,743m in length. A fourth will be rehabilitated, requiring 28,291m of pipelines. This will increase water supply by over 21%, the report said.

Source: Daniel Bland, BNamericas.com [subscription site], 30 Dec 2009

Brazil, Rio de Janeiro: needs sanitation improvements for 2014 World Cup, says specialist

Rio de Janeiro lacks the sanitation services required to host the 2014 World Cup, according to Marcelo Cortes Neri, head of the center for social research for the Brazilian economic thinktank Fundação Getúlio Vargas (FGV).

Current sanitation services will not support the influx of tourists into the city during the sporting event, the expert said.

“Of the 12 host cities, Rio needs the most improvements regarding sewage collection services,” Neri told BNamericas during an interview.

“Our most recent study shows that Rio de Janeiro has 85.2% coverage, ranking it fifth amongst the host cities,” Neri said.

Besides Rio de Janeiro, Neri mentioned Porto Alegre (capital of Rio Grande do Sul) and Natal (capital of Rio Grande do Norte) as also having inadequate sanitation services.

While Porto Alegre has 32.9% sewage service coverage, Natal has the lowest coverage of all the host cities with 18.5%.

The 623mn-real (US$358mn) Complexo do Alemão initiative aims to expand sanitation services in the north of Rio de Janeiro. It is currently about 40% complete.

Rio de Janeiro’s utility company is state water and sewerage utility Nova Cedae.

The host cities for the 2014 World Cup are Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Porto Alegre, Belo Horizonte (Minas Gerais state) and Curitiba (Paraná state) in the south and southeast.

Representing the north and northeast are Natal, Salvador (Bahia state), Manaus (Amazonas state), Fortaleza (Ceará state) and Recife (Pernambuco state).

The cities of Cuiabá (Mato Grosso state) and Brasília in the federal district in the central west of the country complete the list.

Source: Daniel Bland, BNamericas.com [subscription site], 07 Dec 2009

Brazil: sanitation MDG could be reached by 2025 – study

Brazil could meet its Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in sanitation by 2025, a full 10 years behind schedule, according to a study by NGO Instituto Trata Brasil (ITB).

The MDGs require the country to halve the urban population without sustainable access to basic sanitation services by 2015, which would have required an average 2.77% expansion in coverage each year from 1990-2015.

From 1990-2006, the deficit fell an average of 1.31%/y. At this rate, the goal would have taken 56 years to meet. In 2007 and 2008, however, the average rate fell by 4.18%/y. If this rhythm is kept up, the country will reach the goals in 16 years, the release said.

The creation of the cities ministry in 2003, changes in sanitation laws and the county’s growth acceleration plan (PAC) have contributed to the upward trend.

ITB president Raul Pinho and Marcelo Cortes Neri, head of the center for social research at Fundação Getúlio Vargas (FGV) presented the results of the study in São Paulo [at the end of November 2009].

“Giving PAC all the credit, however, may be a little premature,” Neri said, adding: “Local political decisions such as separating city centers from suburbs have also contributed.”

While 51% of the population now has access to sewage services, it is still low compared to other basic services such as electricity (98.6%), water (82%) and trash collection (79%).

A recent study released by the World Health Organization shows that 18mn Brazilians do not have bathrooms, according to Pinho.

“This is an embarrassing statistic as only six other countries have lower figures,” Pinho said, adding: “We need political will and an overall social awareness” to overcome the problems of basic sanitation in the country.

Source: Daniel Bland, BNamericas.com [subscription site], 26 Nov 2009