Tag Archives: CLTS

Can WASH deliver more than just sanitation?

Through successful WASH intervention, communities access a new service that improves their quality of life, and also learn about equity and inclusion.

Blog by development expert Suvojit Chattopadhyay

The abysmal state of access to safe water and sanitation facilities in the developing world is currently a major cause for alarm; 580,000 children die every year from preventable diarrheal diseases. This is due largely to the 2.5 billion people around the globe who do not have access to safe sanitation. Not only can an effective WASH intervention save lives, it can also engineer changes in the social fabric of communities that adopt these behavioural changes. This points to a key attribute of a successful WASH intervention – that through these programmes, communities not only access a new service that improves their quality of life, but they also learn from being part of a concrete intervention that emphasises equity and inclusion.

Let me explain how. Safe sanitation is essentially ‘total’. In a community, even one family practising open defecation puts the health of other families at risk. Also, unsafe sanitation practices pollute local potable and drinking water sources in the habitations. Together, this can undo any gains from partial coverage of WASH interventions. This much is now widely accepted by sanitation practitioners around the world. However, there remains a serious challenge when it comes to the implementation of this concept.

When a community is introduced to a WASH-focused behaviour change campaign, there are often variations in the levels of take-up in different families. This could be because of several barriers – financial ability, cultural beliefs, education levels, etc. In response, external agencies have many options. They can focus more on families in their behaviour change campaigns, offer them material and financial support or incentives, or exert peer pressure (which may in some cases become coercive, etc).

However, the best approach – whether facilitated by an external agent or not – is for a community to devise a collective response. The issue should be framed as a collective action problem that requires solving for the creation of a public good. In many instances, communities have come together to support the poorest families – social engineering at its finest. At its best, recognising the needs of every member of a community will lead to a recognition of the challenges that the typically marginalised groups face. It is this recognition that could prompt a rethink of social norms and relationships.

Read the full article on the WSSCC Guardian partner zone.

Global Sanitation Fund reports large-scale advances in sanitation and hygiene in 13 countries

Lucie Obiokang with the toilet she built after being triggered.

Lucie Obiokang with the toilet she built after being triggered.

A new report shows that the Global Sanitation Fund (GSF) has supported governments and hundreds of their national partners in 13 countries, stretching from Cambodia to Senegal, to enable 7 million people in more than 20,500 communities to end open defecation.   

These results are published in the GSF’s latest Progress Report (link to report; link to photos), which highlights cumulative results from the start of the fund until the end of 2014. Nationally-led programmes supported by the GSF have enabled:

  • 4.2 million people with improved toilets
  • 7 million people and more than 20,500 communities to be open-defecation free
  • 8 million people with handwashing facilities

Currently, 2.5 billion people, or 40% of the global population, lack access to decent sanitation. Of those, more than a billion defecate in the open. Diarrheal disease, largely caused by poor sanitation and hygiene, is a leading cause of malnutrition, stunting and child mortality, claiming nearly 600,000 under-5 lives every year. Inadequate facilities also affect education and economic productivity and impact the dignity and personal safety of women and girls.

Established by the Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council (WSSCC), the GSF funds behaviour change activities to help large numbers of poor people in the hardest-to-reach areas attain safe sanitation and adopt good hygiene practices. These activities are community-led, support national efforts, and bring together a diverse group of stakeholders in order to address, at a large scale, the severe deficiencies in access to sanitation and hygiene.

The GSF is a pooled financing mechanism with the potential to further accelerate access to sanitation for hundreds of millions of people over the next 15 years. Between 2013 and 2014 alone, the GSF reported an almost 90 percent increase in the number of people living open-defecation free in target regions of 13 countries[1] across Africa and Asia. During this same period, the GSF has also supported a 55 percent increase in the number of people with access to improved toilets in those same areas. The United Nations system has identified global funds as an important tool to enable member countries to achieve their national development targets, including those for sanitation and hygiene.[2]

“These results prove that we are moving closer to our vision of a world where everybody has sustained sanitation and hygiene, supported by safe water,” said Chris Williams, Executive Director of WSSCC.  “This is a crucial step towards achieving better health, reducing poverty and ensuring environmental sustainability for the most marginalized people in the world.”

These GSF results have been achieved due to the work of more than 200 partners, including executing agencies and sub-grantees composed of representatives from governments, international organizations, academic institutions, the United Nations and civil society. One of the strongest success factors in the GSF approach is that it allows flexibility for countries to develop their programmes within the context of their own institutional framework and according to their own specific sanitation and hygiene needs, sector capacity and stakeholders. This implementation methodology is used to reach large numbers of households in a relatively short period of time and is vital for scaling up safe sanitation and hygiene practices.

“GSF is one of the few funds for government-led, donor-funded sanitation and hygiene programmes,” said Williams. “It can uniquely serve as a catalyst to the wider sector as a model that is replicable for others interested in large-scale behaviour change.”

Reaching scale has required that sub-grantees can identify influential, strategic communities, and make effective use of natural leaders, religious and local leaders, or hundreds of others who serve as individual sanitation and hygiene champions. GSF supported programmes apply a local delivery mechanism that engages households in thousands of villages, which enables people to make informed decisions about their sanitation and hygiene behaviour that can improve their health, education and productivity.

The report also highlights the GSF’s impact on national programmes. In Uganda, there are now more than 1.4 million people living in open-defecation free (ODF) environments, thanks to GSF-funded activities, and close to three million people have been reached by hygiene messages as a result of decentralized local government intervention. In Madagascar, over 1.3 million people are now living in ODF environments – in all 22 of the countries regions – and India’s GSF-supported programme has over 782,000 people with handwashing facilities.

“Access to improved sanitation has to be a sustainable reality for every person in the community, regardless of age, gender or disability, in order for the health and other benefits to be enjoyed by all,” said David Shimkus, Programme Director of the GSF. “This report shows that GSF-supported programmes are making major strides in achieving improved sanitation and hygiene for the most vulnerable, and all stakeholders will continue to work together to ensure such progress continues.”

The Governments of Australia, Finland, the Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom have contributed to the GSF since its establishment in 2008. Close to $105 million has been committed for 13 country programmes, which aim to reach 36 million people.

[1] Benin, Cambodia, Ethiopia, India, Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi, Nepal, Nigeria, Senegal, Tanzania, Togo and Uganda.

[2] See draft outcome document for the forthcoming Addis Ababa Accord of the Third International Conference on Financing for Development, and the UN Sustainable Development Solutions Network Financing for Sustainable Development report and its Role of Global Funds in a Post-2015 Development Framework.

Frontiers of CLTS Issue 4: Sustainability and CLTS- Taking Stock

Frontiers of CLTS Issue 4: Sustainability and CLTS- Taking Stock, 2015.

Sustainability is without doubt one of the most burning subject matters that subsumes many of the issues that we are seeing in CLTS and wider WASH practice. clts

There have been several useful studies on sustainability that have highlighted some of the different aspects as well as the complexities involved. However, it is unclear how much of the learning from these studies has been built into current and future programming and practice.

Based on existing research and our own understanding, this issue of Frontiers of CLTS is an attempt at an up to date synthesis of where we are at the beginning of 2015.

In the issue, we identify some priority areas for learning: How to phase in sanitation marketing; Post-ODF engagement of government, NGOS, donors and others; How to ensure equity and inclusion; How to transform social norms; Monitoring, learning, changing.

Peace Corps Benin WASH Resources in French

WASHplus and Peace Corps/Benin have teamed up to produce a set of training and job aids for Peace Corps Volunteers and their counterparts.  Eventually, Peace Corps/Benin would like all volunteers serving in Benin to have some WASH training to integrate WASH into whatever their primary program focus is – education, health, environment.
wash_schools_toolkit-french2014-3

Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) Toolkit

– Part 1 – Boîte à Outils: Assainissement Total Pilote par la Communaute (ATPC), 2014. Cette boîte à outils soutient l’exécution de la méthode « Assainissement Total Piloté par le Communauté » (ATPC). Cette méthode est basée sur les activités qui permettent aux membres de la communauté de prendre conscience du fait que la défécation à l’air- libre est un risque sanitaire pour tout le monde.

– Part 2 – Le Manuel Pas a Pas, 2014.

Household Water Treatment and Safe Storage

– Part 1 – Boîte à Outils: Le Traitement de l’Eau et la Conservation Sûre, 2014. Avoir accès à l’eau potable est un élément important pour rester en bonne santé et éviter les maladies – spécifiquement les maladies diarrhéiques.

– Part 2 – Manuel de Formation des Comites de Gestion d’Eau Villageois, 2014. Les matières dans cette boîte à outils servent principalement à aider les personnes chargées de promouvoir le traitement de l’eau et la conservation au niveau des ménages.

WASH in Schools Toolkit

– Part 1 – Boîte à Outils: l’Eau, l’Hygiene et l’Assainissement (WASH) en Milieu Scolaire, 2014. Pour cela, nous avons développé cette boîte à outils pour les activités en vue de la promotion de l’eau, l’hygiène, et l’assainissement (dénommé WASH) en milieu scolaire. Cette boîte contient l’essentiel pour la réussite d’une gamme d’activités.

– Part 2 – Guide des Possibilites d’Assainissement en Milieu Scolaire: Options pour l’Amelioration de ‘Assainissement, 2014.

How to Trigger for Handwashing with Soap

How to Trigger for Handwashing with Soap.  Frontiers of CLTS:  Innovations and Insights, Issue 02, January 2014.

Author: Jolly Ann Maulit for UNICEF Malawi Frontiers

The Open Defecation Free (ODF) Malawi 2015 Strategy and National Hand Washing Campaign have been contributing to an increased focus on handwashing with soap (HWWS) in Malawi. This is a very positive development!

Some studies estimate that washing hands with soap can reduce diarrhoeal disease rates by up to 50 per cent and respiratory disease rates by up to 25 per cent. This makes handwashing with soap one of the most cost-effective interventions for reducing illness and preventable deaths among children in Malawi. It is therefore quite worthwhile for us to be working together to increase handwashing practices.

Since Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) is our key intervention for sanitation and hygiene promotion in Malawi, it provides an excellent opportunity to facilitate handwashing behaviour change. However, up till now, the ‘triggering tools’ for achieving HWWS behaviour change from CLTS have not been well known by implementers in Malawi. The purpose of this document is to outline several practical tools which can be used as a part of CLTS in order to trigger realisation among communities of the importance of handwashing with soap, as well as eliminating open defecation.

 

 

 

Community-Led Total Sanitation in East Asia and Pacific: Progress, Lessons and Directions

Community-Led Total Sanitation in East Asia and Pacific: Progress, Lessons and Directions, 2013CLTS-cover-resized

UNICEF, Plan, WaterAid and Water and Sanitation Program (WSP).

Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) is a community-wide behaviour change approach to stop open defecation which has been practiced by an estimated 100 million people in this region. Various organizations (i.e. Plan International, UNICEF, WaterAid, Water and Sanitation Program (WSP), Institute of Development Studies (IDS) and the CLTS Foundation, are supporting implementation across 12 countries in the East Asia and Pacific region; more then 50 UNICEF Country Offices across Asia, Africa and Latin America are now supporting implementation of Community Approaches to Total Sanitation.

The publication provides an up-to-date summary of CLTS status, lessons and experiences from the region, and highlights some of the key areas that require further attention and better quality uptake of CLTS at country level, and as such guide in accelerating efforts for reaching open defecation free (ODF) status and overall sanitation and hygiene improvements at scale.

WaterAid Australia – Webinar on Sanitation Marketing and Community-led Total Sanitation

The Sanitation Marketing Community of Practice (www.sanitationmarketing.com) managed by WaterAid Australia on behalf of the Australian WASH Reference Group is pleased to announce our fourth webinar! wateraid-australia

Webinar 4: Sanitation Marketing and Community-led Total Sanitation (CLTS)

Date: Thursday 7th February 2013

Time: | 8:00am (London) | 9:00am (Geneva) | 11:00am (Nairobi) | 3:00pm (Jakarta, Indonesia) | 7:00pm (Melbourne, Australia) Check my time zone

Presenters: This session will be facilitated by Oliver Jones, Programme Officer, The Global Sanitation Fund (GSF), Water Supply & Sanitation Collaborative Council (WSSCC). Presenters include Ulemu Chiluzi from Plan Malawi and Julian Kyomuhangi from the Government of Uganda.

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