By Richard Gledhill, ICAI lead commissioner for WASH review
62.9 million people – almost the population of the UK – that’s how many people in developing countries DFID claimed to have reached with WASH interventions between 2011 and 2015.
It’s an impressive figure. And – in our first ever ‘impact review’ – it’s a figure the Independent Commission for Aid Impact found to be based on credible evidence.
We assessed the results claim made by DFID about WASH, testing the evidence and visiting projects to see the results for ourselves. We concluded that the claim was credible – calculated using appropriate methods and conservative assumptions.
But what does reaching 62.9 million people really mean? Have lives been transformed? And have the results been sustainable?
Photo: Cornell University
A trial is underway in Zimbabwe to measure the independent and combined effects of improved sanitation and hygiene (WASH) and improved infant diet on stunting and anemia among children 0-18 months old [Cornell University CENTIR Group blog].
The Sanitation, Hygiene and Infant Nutrition Efficacy (SHINE) Trial is led by the Zvitambo Institute for Maternal and Child Health Research in Harare, Zimbabwe in collaboration with the Ministry of Health and Child Care/Government of Zimbabwe. Other contracted experts include Sandy Cairncross, Val Curtis and Peter Morgan.
The SHINE Trial is being undertaken in Chirumanzu and Shurugw, two districts with high HIV prevalence. Besides investigating the effects of sanitation and nutrition, SHINE will also test whether Environmental Enteric Dysfunction (EED)is a major cause of a major cause of child undernutrition. EED, also called environmental enteropathy, is a condition believed to be due to frequent intestinal infections.
SHINE is being being funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and the UK Department for International Development (DFID). There are additional contributions from Wellcome Trust, National Institutes of Health, and the Swiss Development Cooperation.
A special open access supplement of Clinical Infectious Diseases is devoted to SHINE containing the following articles:
- The Sanitation Hygiene Infant Nutrition Efficacy (SHINE) Trial Team, doi:10.1093/cid/civ844
- Design of an Intervention to Minimize Ingestion of Fecal Microbes by Young Children in Rural Zimbabwe, doi:10.1093/cid/civ845
- The SHINE Trial Infant Feeding Intervention: Pilot Study of Effects on Maternal Learning and Infant Diet Quality in Rural Zimbabwe, doi:10.1093/cid/civ846
- Using Geographic Information Systems and Spatial Analysis Methods to Assess Household Water Access and Sanitation Coverage in the SHINE Trial, doi:10.1093/cid/civ847
- Assessment of Environmental Enteric Dysfunction in the SHINE Trial: Methods and Challenges, doi:10.1093/cid/civ848
- The Potential Role of Mycotoxins as a Contributor to Stunting in the SHINE Trial, doi:10.1093/cid/civ849
- Assessing the Intestinal Microbiota in the SHINE Trial, doi:10.1093/cid/civ850
- Assessing Maternal Capabilities in the SHINE Trial: Highlighting a Hidden Link in the Causal Pathway to Child Health, doi:10.1093/cid/civ851
- Theory-Driven Process Evaluation of the SHINE Trial Using a Program Impact Pathway Approach, doi:10.1093/cid/civ716
Posted in Africa, Research, Sanitation and Health
Tagged Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, DFID, environmental enteropathy, Nutrition, Sanitation, Hygiene and Infant Nutrition Efficacy (SHINE) Trial, WASH nutrition integration, Zimbabwe, Zvitambo Institute for Maternal and Child Health Research
More funding for a local government-led approach introduced in 2008 by SNV and IRC to scale up sanitation from community to district level.
The UK’s Department for International Development (DFID) has awarded SNV Netherlands Development Organisation a €28 million (US$ 32 million) service contract to fund the Sustainable Sanitation & Hygiene for All (SSH4A) Results Programme. Introduced by SNV and IRC in 2008 in Nepal, Bhutan, Cambodia, Viet Nam and Laos, SSH4A is a comprehensive, local government-led approach to scale up sanitation from community to district level.
With funding from the DFID Results Fund, the SSH4A Results Programme will provide improved sanitation to more than 2 million people in nine countries: Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Mozambique, Nepal, South Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda and Zambia. The programme will also reach out to over 2.7 million people with hygiene promotion, make 1,200 communities Open Defecation Free (ODF), ensure that 400,000 people practice hand washing with soap at critical times, assist the preparation of district sanitation plans and improve local governments’ capacity for steering improved sanitation.
SSH4A programmes have been implemented with rural communities in 15 countries across Asia and Africa. In Asia, more than 2.2 million rural people have been reached, of whom 700,000 received improved sanitation.
Source: SNV, 28 Apr 2014
Posted in Africa, Funding, Hygiene Promotion, Sanitary Facilities, South Asia
Tagged DFID, Ethiopia, Ghana, IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre, Kenya, Mozambique, Nepal, SNV, South Sudan, SSH4A, Sustainable Sanitation and Hygiene for All programme, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia
A new project promises to provide one million people in Bangladesh with an improved living environment and access to safe faecal sludge management. The project will also give 250,000 people access to improved sanitation facilities and use market-based solutions to generate biogas from sludge.
SNV Bangladesh and Khulna City Corporation (KCC) launched the “Demonstration of pro-poor market- based solutions for faecal sludge management in urban centres of Southern Bangladesh” project on March 31, 2014. The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and the UK Department for International Development (DFID) are funding the project.
Currently Khulna has no designated dumping sites or treatment facilities for faecal sludge. The city has an estimated population of 1.6 million, while 1.2 million more people live in the surrounding 36 smaller towns. By developing faecal sludge management services in KCC, and the two small towns of Khustia and Jhenaidah in Khulna division, the four-year project aims to reform human waste management in Bangladesh.
Read more in the project brochure.
Source: SNV, 4 Apr 2014
The Humanitarian Innovation Fund (HIF) has US$ 20,000 on offer for a proposal for an economical, sustainable lighting system for latrines in refugee or displaced persons camps.
Communal latrine facilities in camps are often underutilised at night when it is dark for fear of harassment and attacks especially for women and children. Existing lighting systems tend to be costly as most camps do not have a central electrical system as a power source. Also, battery systems tend to get stolen for valuable parts. This Challenge is to design a lighting system for communal latrine facilities that will promote safety and utilization. The system must be robust, economical and not easily vandalized or stolen.
This is a Theoretical Challenge that requires only a written proposal to be submitted. Award winners does not need to transfer their exclusive IP rights to the HIF, but instead grant HIF non-exclusive license to practice their solutions.
Deadline: 16 March 2014
For more information and to register for the Challenge, go to:
The Humanitarian Innovation Fund (HIF) is managed by ELRHA (Enhancing Learning and Research for Humanitarian Assistance) and administered by Save the Children.
The HIF’s £3.3 million (US$ 5.5 million) WASH Innovation Fund is supported by the UK Department for International Development (DFID) and will initially focus on two challenges:
- Lighting Latrines (see above)
- Managing Solid Waste, due to launch later in January 2014, which will award designs for a new incinerator, compactor or recycling method that is rapidly deployable, cost-effective and easy to use.
As well as these two open challenges, the WASH Innovation Fund will also support Accelerated Innovation events for more complex challenges. These will bring together aid agencies, businesses and academics already working in the sector to collaborate and create partnerships that can develop and test new ideas.
For full details go to:
Source: DFID, Could you help save lives in a disaster zone?, GOV.UK, 18 Jan 2014
The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF) and the UK Department for International Development (DfID) have initiated a partnership to focus on solutions for the sustainable provision of sanitation to the urban poor. They are jointly seeking proposals to test how cities can use binding service-level agreements and performance-based contracts with private sector partners as way to ensure the city-scale delivery of sustainable sanitation services.
The selection of the cities will be a two-step process. In Phase 1, up to ten cities will be selected to develop an informed plan and full proposal to solicit a grant. Out of these proposals, 2-3 cities will be selected for a larger Phase 2 grant to support implementation of their proposed plan. The duration of the Phase 2 grant is expected to be 2-3 years. Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia are priority geographies for consideration.
Phase 1 budgets have a maximum of US$ 150,000, but no budget limits have been set yet for Phase 2.
The application deadline for proposals is 13 September 2013.
In 2012, the Gates Foundation published a study on fecal sludge management in 30 cities across 10 countries in Africa and Asia.
For more information on the “City Partnerships for Urban Sanitation Service Delivery” request for proposals (RFP) go here.
The first High Level Meeting of the Sanitation and Water for All global partnership is targeting Ministers of Finance and Ministers of Development Cooperation. They are considered to have the most influence when it comes to securing the investments needed for “Getting on-track for the sanitation and water MDG targets”, the focus for the meeting to be held on 23 April 2010 in Washington, DC, USA.
Sanitation and Water for All is a joint initiative launched by the UK and the Netherlands in September 2008, which now involves 17 other donors, multi-lateral agencies, civil society and other development partners. The initiative allocates £5 million (6 million Euros) over five years to an annual report and high level meeting focused on reviewing progress. A further joint Dutch-UK commitment was made of £85 million (100 million Euros) over the same period to help up to 20 poor countries develop and implement their own national water and sanitation plans.
The 2010 High Level Meeting will take place just before the weekend 2010 World Bank Spring Meetings which are attended by Ministers of Finance and Ministers for Development Cooperation. UNICEF will host the first High Level Meeting.
One of the expected outcomes of the meeting will be a greater understanding of the linkages between water, sanitation and economic growth. To support this outcome, economic case study reports for sanitation and drinking water have been prepared for 19 countries, 14 from Africa and 5 from Asia.
Another expected outcome is the “identification of specific steps countries can take to advance access to, and mobilize resources for, increasing access to safe water and sanitation – particularly countries with greatest needs; including the development of technical assistance tools to provide support for the development and implementation of national water and sanitation plans/strategies”.
More information on the High Level Meeting and on the Sanitation and Water for All initiative’s Global Framework for Action can be found on the web site of UN-Water.
Posted in Africa, Campaigns and Events, East Asia & Pacific, Economic Benefits, Funding, Policy, South Asia
Tagged DFID, finance, Global Framework for Action on Sanitation and Water, MDGs, Netherlands, UN-Water, unicef