Tag Archives: handwashing

Handwashing With a Water-Efficient Tap and Low-Cost Foaming Soap: The Povu Poa “Cool Foam” System in Kenya

Handwashing With a Water-Efficient Tap and Low-Cost Foaming Soap: The Povu Poa “Cool Foam” System in Kenya. Global Health: Science and Practice, June 2016.

Authors: Jaynie Whinnery, Gauthami Penakalapati, Rachel Steinacher, Noel Wilson, Clair Null, Amy J Pickering.

The new handwashing system, designed with end user input, features an economical foaming soap dispenser and a hygienic, water-efficient tap for use in household and institutional settings that lack reliable access to piped water.

Cost of the soap and water needed for use is less than US$0.10 per 100 handwash uses, compared with US$0.20–$0.44 for conventional handwashing stations used in Kenya.

KEY PRODUCT FEATURES OF THE POVU POA HANDWASHING SYSTEM

  • Soap security: The soap foamer is attached to the system, preventing theft
  • Affordability: Just 5 g of powdered or liquid soap mixed with 250 mL of water can provide 100 uses for US$0.10 (cost includes soap and water).
  • Hygienic: The innovative swing-tap design is bidirectional and can be used with the back of the hand or wrist, limiting recontamination of hands after handwashing.
  • Water-frugality: The water flow is sufficient for handwashing while providing a 30-77% reduction in water usage compared with conventional methods.
  • Scalability: Components are specifically designed for low-cost mass production and deployment, estimated at US$12 per unit.
  • Adaptable: The 2 handwashing station configurations can be adapted to meet different needs and preferences and can be used in households and institutional settings, such as schools and health centers.

WASH Innovation Award Winners

Congratulations to the winners and finalists of the inaugural DFAT-sponsored Civil Society Innovation Award 2016, which was announced at the WASH Futures Conference Dinner 2016.  | Source: Civil Society WASH Fund, May 2016 |

First place went to Save the Children – Nudging handwashing among primary school students in BangladeshKamal Hossain from Save the Children Bangladesh was excited to receive the award in person from Anne Joselin, DFAT. Save the Children’s innovation to improve hand-washing in schools uses environmental cues and nudges. handwashing.pngIt is more cost effective than hygiene communication programs and has shown positive results in changing and sustaining behaviour change amongst school children. Watch the winning video here

Second place was awarded to Water for People! in Uganda for their submission, Low cost solutions for Faecal Sludge Management. Water for People! have shown their work innovating at many stages of the sanitation chain, from low cost modular toilet design, pit emptying and faecal sludge treatment and reuse. Their holistic approach to sanitation and faecal sludge management (FSM) are impacting many peoples’ lives, particularly in the slums of Kampala. Watch the video here

Third runner up was Wetlands Work! 
Cambodia for the HandyPod – Sanitation solutions for floating communities in CambodiaThe Handy Pod is a floating toilet design suitable for the communities of the Tonle Sap lake area and uses wetlands treatment technology. Watch the video here.  

Read the complete article.

 

Disgust, Shame, and Soapy Water: Tests of Novel Interventions to Promote Safe Water and Hygiene

Disgust, Shame, and Soapy Water: Tests of Novel Interventions to Promote Safe Water and HygieneJournal of the Association of Environmental and Resource Economists 3, no. 2 (June 2016): 321-359. Authors: Raymond P. Guiteras, David I. Levine, Stephen P. Luby, et al.

Lack of access to clean water is among the most pressing environmental problems in developing countries, where diarrheal disease kills nearly 700,000 children per year. While inexpensive and effective practices such as chlorination and hand washing with soap exist, efforts to motivate their use by emphasizing health benefits have seen only limited success.

This paper measures the effect of messages appealing to negative emotions (disgust at consumption of human feces) and social pressure (shame at being seen consuming human feces) on hand-washing behavior and use of and willingness to pay for water chlorination among residents of slum compounds in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Neither the traditional, health-based message nor the new disgust-and-shame message led to high levels of chlorination during a free trial, nor to high willingness to pay for the chlorine at the end of the free trial. Provision of low-cost hand-washing facilities did increase hand washing, although the effect size is modest.

 

PPPHW – The State of Handwashing in 2015

The State of Handwashing in 2015. Global Public-Private Partnership for Handwashing.

In this summary, we outline key themes and findings from 44 peer-reviewed handwashing-related research papers published globally in 2015 and specifically relevant in low and middle-income countries. handwashing

These findings can be categorized by five key themes:

  • Benefits of handwashing with soap
  • Measuring handwashing behavior
  • Approaches to handwashing behavior change
  • Handwashing station sustainability
  • Handwashing in the emergency setting

April 4, 2016 – Handwashing Think Tank

April 4, 2016 – Handwashing Think Tank – Moving from Evidence to Action: Integration, Settings, and Scale handwashingthinktank

The facts about handwashing are clear. It prevents illness–from the commonplace such as influenza, diarrhea, and pneumonia–to the rare, yet deadly–such as Ebola. It’s benefits are far reaching as it impacts not only health, but also nutrition, education, and equity. And, in addition to being effective, it is affordable and accessible.
Yet, despite the clear benefits of hygiene, far too often it isn’t prioritized from the personal level to the policy level.

Join the Global Public-Private Partnership for Handwashing, the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, and WaterAid as we learn how the evidence in handwashing integration, settings, and scale can be acted upon.

This event will feature brief, engaging presentations from experts in each of these areas. Attendees will also learn about the latest in handwashing research and have an opportunity to ask questions of the presenters. The event will be concluded with a cocktail reception.

WHEN – Tuesday, April 12, 2016 from 4:00 PM to 7:30 PM (BST)
WHERE – London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine – John Snow Lecture Theatre Main Keppel Street Building, London WC1E 7HT, United Kingdom

 

Topic of the Week – January 2016 Handwashing Studies

Emerging infectious diseases. 2016 Feb; 22(2):233-41. doi: 10.3201/eid2202.151175.

Randomized Controlled Trial of Hospital-Based Hygiene and Water Treatment Intervention (CHoBI7) to Reduce Cholera. Authors: George CM, et al.

The risk for cholera infection is >100 times higher for household contacts of cholera patients during the week after the index patient seeks hospital care than it is for the general population. To initiate a standard of care for this high-risk population, we developed Cholera-Hospital-Based-Intervention-for-7-Days (CHoBI7), which promotes hand washing with soap and treatment of water. To test CHoBI7, we conducted a randomized controlled trial among 219 intervention household contacts of 82 cholera patients and 220 control contacts of 83 cholera patients in Dhaka, Bangladesh, during 2013-2014. Intervention contacts had significantly fewer symptomatic Vibrio cholerae infections than did control contacts and 47% fewer overall V. cholerae infections. Intervention households had no stored drinking water with V. cholerae and 14 times higher odds ofhand washing with soap at key events during structured observation on surveillance days 5, 6, or 7. CHoBI7 presents a promising approach for controlling cholera among highly susceptible household contacts of cholera patients.

Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2016 Jan 19. pii: 15-0335.

Beliefs, Behaviors, and Perceptions of Community-Led Total Sanitation and Their Relation to Improved Sanitation in Rural Zambia. Authors: Lawrence JJ, et al.

Inadequate hygiene and sanitation remain leading global contributors to morbidity and mortality in children and adults. One strategy for improving sanitation access is community-led total sanitation (CLTS), in which participants are guided into self-realization of the importance of sanitation through activities called “triggering.” This qualitative study explored community members’ and stakeholders’ sanitation, knowledge, perceptions, and behaviors during early CLTS implementation in Zambia. We conducted 67 in-depth interviews and 24 focus group discussions in six districts in Zambia 12-18 months after CLTS implementation. Triggering activities elicited strong emotions, including shame, disgust, and peer pressure, which persuaded individuals and families to build and use latrines and handwashing stations. New sanitation behaviors were also encouraged by the hierarchical influences of traditional leaders and sanitation action groups and by children’s opinions. Poor soil conditions were identified as barriers to latrine construction. Taboos, including prohibition of family members, in-laws, and opposite genders from using the same toilet, were barriers for using sanitation facilities. CLTS, through community empowerment and ownership, produced powerful responses that encouraged construction and use of latrines and handwashing practices. These qualitative data suggest that CLTS is effective for improving sanitation beliefs and behaviors in Zambia.

Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2016 Jan 14;13(1). pii: E129. doi: 10.3390/ijerph13010129.

Behavior Change without Behavior Change Communication: NudgingHandwashing among Primary School Students in Bangladesh. Authors: Dreibelbis R, et al.

Behavior change communication for improving handwashing with soap can be labor and resource intensive, yet quality results are difficult to achieve. Nudges are environmental cues engaging unconscious decision-making processes to prompt behavior change. In this proof-of-concept study, we developed an inexpensive set of nudges to encourage handwashing with soap after toilet use in two primary schools in rural Bangladesh. We completed direct observation of behaviors at baseline, after providing traditional handwashing infrastructure, and at multiple time periods following targeted handwashing nudges (1 day, 2 weeks, and 6 weeks). No additional handwashing education or motivational messages were completed.

Handwashing with soap among school children was low at baseline (4%), increasing to 68% the day after nudges were completed and 74% at both 2 weeks and 6 weeks post intervention. Results indicate that nudge-based interventions have the potential to improve handwashing with soap among school-aged children in Bangladesh and specific areas of further inquiry are discussed.

Arch Dis Child. 2016 Jan;101(1):42-50. doi: 10.1136/archdischild-2015-308875.

Effectiveness of hand hygiene interventions in reducing illness absence among children in educational settings: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Authors: Willmott M, et al.

OBJECTIVE: To undertake a systematic review and meta-analysis to establish the effectiveness ofhandwashing in reducing absence and/or the spread of respiratory tract (RT) and/or gastrointestinal (GI) infection among school-aged children and/or staff in educational settings.

RESULTS: Eighteen cluster RCTs were identified; 13 school-based, 5 in child day care facilities or preschools. Studies were heterogeneous and had significant quality issues including small numbers of clusters and participants and inadequate randomisation. Individual study results suggest interventions may reduce children’s absence, RT infection incidence and symptoms, and laboratory confirmed influenza-like illness. Evidence of impact on GI infection or symptoms was equivocal.

CONCLUSIONS: Studies are generally not well executed or reported. Despite updating existing systematic reviews and identifying new studies, evidence of the effect of hand hygiene interventions on infection incidence in educational settings is mostly equivocal but they may decrease RT infection among children. These results update and add to knowledge about this crucial public health issue in key settings with a vulnerable population. More robust, well reported cluster RCTs which learn from existing studies, are required.

J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2016 Jan;62(1):150-6. doi: 10.1097/MPG.0000000000000901.

Predictors of Stunting Among Children Ages 0 to 59 Months in a Rural Region of Armenia. Authors: Demirchyan A, et al.

OBJECTIVES: The prevalence of stunting in Armenia more than doubled since the 1990s. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and the predictors of stunting among children younger than 5 years in a rural region of Armenia, Talin, targeted by the World Vision (WV) nutrition interventions.

CONCLUSIONS: The study findings suggest that although WV nutrition interventions have shown impact, there is also a nonnutritional pathway of child stunting in rural Armenia. Thus, antistunting interventions should include sanitation and hygienic measures along with adequate perinatal care and maternal and child nutrition to further reduce childhood stunting, ensuring long-term health benefits for children not only in rural Armenia but also in rural communities in other low/middle-income countries.

Unilever unveils new film and rural programme about handwashing with soap for newborn survival

Unilever’s health soap, Lifebuoy introduced ‘Chamki’, a compelling new film to raise awareness of the importance of handwashing with soap for new mums as part of Lifebuoy’s Help A Child Reach 5 handwashing programme.

This year, the campaign focuses on a child’s neonatal period (the first 28 days of life). It also coincides with the launch of a partnership with the Children’s Investment Fund Foundation (CIFF) to scale up Lifebuoy’s handwashing programmes in rural Bihar, India.

The newest Help a Child Reach 5 film was developed by Mullen Lowe Group and shot by the famous feature film director, Anand Gandhi. The film showcases the emotional journey of a real pregnant mother and her aspirations for her child.

It highlights the importance of doing something very simple, yet important during pregnancy and early in the child’s life: washing hands with soap.

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