Tag Archives: hygiene

WASHplus Weekly: Focus on Hygiene

WASHplus Weekly – Issue 190| May 8, 2015 | Focus on Hygiene

This issue focuses on hygiene advocacy, hygiene promotion, and hygiene in emergency settings. Included are webinars; a toolkit; a literature review from the Global Public-Private Partnership for Handwashing; a blog post by Orlando Hernandez, USAID/WASHplus project; IRC and BRAC reports on handwashing promotion; World Health Organization (WHO) hygiene guidelines for Ebola and other emergencies; and other studies and resources. WASHPlus_HTMLbanner_weekly_600x159

WEBINARS

Healing Hands: The Role of Hand Hygiene in Healthcare Globally. May 2015. Global Public-Private Partnership for Handwashing (PPPHW). Link
PPPHW hosted this webinar to discuss the importance of hand hygiene in health care, the challenges of achieving good hand hygiene, and lessons for improving hand hygiene in health care settings. The speakers included Benedetta Allegranzi, the WHO’s Lead for the Clean Care is Safer Care program, Cyrus Engineer, director of the Healthcare Management Program at Towson University, and Robert Aunger from the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine.

Handwashing and Global Food Hygiene: A World Health Day Webinar. April 2015. PPPHW. Link
This webinar explores why food hygiene matters for child health in the global context. It includes a case study from the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine about a creative food and handwashing behavior change intervention in Nepal; WASHplus’s Julia Rosenbaum talks about small doable actions; and UNICEF discusses the successes and challenges associated with its group handwashing and mid-day meal program in India.

TOOLKITS

Hygiene Advocacy Toolkit, 2015. PPPHW. Link
Developed by PPPHW, in cooperation with the UNICEF/WHO Joint Monitoring Programme’s Advocacy and Communications Group, this hygiene advocacy toolkit is an evidence-based resource that outlines why hygiene must be a priority in the post-2015 development agenda and beyond. The role of hygiene in the global development agenda is misunderstood. This toolkit seeks to address any confusion and provide the necessary facts and talking points to successfully advocate for the inclusion of hygiene in the Post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals.

Community Handwashing Guide: Utilizing Available Resources to Initiate a Handwashing InterventionWorld Med Health Policy, Mar 2014. MP Sandhu. Link (The full text of this article can be downloaded free of charge through May 2015.)
In this article, the current handwashing recommendations and their applicability to hygiene interventions in developing nations were examined. The results of this review suggested that a new handwashing paradigm is needed to address the varying resources available for hand hygiene. Thus, a novel community handwashing guide was developed. This guide emphasizes the importance of increasing access to physical handwashing resources in developing communities, and can be applied to communities regardless of their socioeconomic status. The community handwashing guide promotes sustainable, incremental improvements in hygiene within a community, and is a more feasible approach than previous recommendations.

LITERATURE REVIEWS

Handwashing Research Summary: What We Learned about Handwashing in the First Quarter of 2015.  L McCay, PPPHW. Link
Between January and March 2015, 16 relevant peer-reviewed handwashing studies were published. This review discusses studies on the benefits of handwashing, measurement of handwashing behavior, handwashing “hardware,” and other topics.

Improving Household Food Hygiene in a Development Context, 2015. M Woldt, FANTA. Link
This literature review presents information on foodborne disease and key areas and considerations at the household level to reduce foodborne contaminants in developing countries. Recommendations on potential programmatic and research activities related to foodborne disease are also included.

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Estimates on the WASH-related Global Burden of Disease

Below are abstracts and links to the full-text of articles in the August 2014 issue of  Tropical Medicine and International Healthtmih

Focus on the Global Burden of Disease from Water
While the methods of Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study continue to evolve, recent changes raise questions about the basis of new estimates of the risk associated with water, sanitation and hygiene and warrant consideration of alternative approaches.

  • ​Inadequate water, sanitation and hygiene are estimated to have caused 842,000 deaths from diarrhoea in 2012, i.e., 1.5% of deaths worldwide. These include 361,000 deaths of children under five years.
  • ​A systematic review of the global prevalence of handwashing with soap and its effect on diarrhoeal diseases estimates that only 19% of the world’s population washes hands with soap after contact with excreta and that handwashing reduces the risk of diarrhoeal disease by 23%–40%.
  • ​Based on over 300 studies from a systematic review, an estimated 1.1 billion people are exposed to a drinking water source of moderate to high risk.
  • ​A meta-regression shows that risks of diarrhoea from inadequate drinking water and sanitation could be reduced considerably through targeted interventions. Risk differences depend on type of intervention.

1 – Authors:  Clasen, Thomas, Pruss-Ustun, Annette, Mathers, Colin D., et al.

TI  – Estimating the impact of unsafe water, sanitation and hygiene on the global burden of disease: evolving and alternative methods
Abstract – http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/tmi.12330/abstract
AB  – The 2010 global burden of disease (GBD) study represents the latest effort to estimate the global burden of disease and injuries and the associated risk factors. Like previous GBD studies, this latest iteration reflects a continuing evolution in methods, scope and evidence base. Since the first GBD Study in 1990, the burden of diarrhoeal disease and the burden attributable to inadequate water and sanitation have fallen dramatically. While this is consistent with trends in communicable disease and child mortality, the change in attributable risk is also due to new interpretations of the epidemiological evidence from studies of interventions to improve water quality. To provide context for a series of companion papers proposing alternative assumptions and methods concerning the disease burden and risks from inadequate water, sanitation and hygiene, we summarise evolving methods over previous GBD studies. We also describe an alternative approach using population intervention modelling. We conclude by emphasising the important role of GBD studies and the need to ensure that policy on interventions such as water and sanitation be grounded on methods that are transparent, peer-reviewed and widely accepted.

2 – Authors: Prüss-Ustün, Annette, Bartram, Jamie, Clasen, Thomas,  et al.

TI  – Burden of disease from inadequate water, sanitation and hygiene in low- and middle-income settings: a retrospective analysis of data from 145 countries

Objective – To estimate the burden of diarrhoeal diseases from exposure to inadequate water, sanitation and hand hygiene in low- and middle-income settings and provide an overview of the impact on other diseases.

Methods – For estimating the impact of water, sanitation and hygiene on diarrhoea, we selected exposure levels with both sufficient global exposure data and a matching exposure-risk relationship. Global exposure data were estimated for the year 2012, and risk estimates were taken from the most recent systematic analyses. We estimated attributable deaths and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) by country, age and sex for inadequate water, sanitation and hand hygiene separately, and as a cluster of risk factors. Uncertainty estimates were computed on the basis of uncertainty surrounding exposure estimates and relative risks.

Results – In 2012, 502 000 diarrhoea deaths were estimated to be caused by inadequate drinking water and 280 000 deaths by inadequate sanitation. The most likely estimate of disease burden from inadequate hand hygiene amounts to 297 000 deaths. In total, 842 000 diarrhoea deaths are estimated to be caused by this cluster of risk factors, which amounts to 1.5% of the total disease burden and 58% of diarrhoeal diseases. In children under 5 years old, 361 000 deaths could be prevented, representing 5.5% of deaths in that age group.
Conclusions – This estimate confirms the importance of improving water and sanitation in low- and middle-income settings for the prevention of diarrhoeal disease burden. It also underscores the need for better data on exposure and risk reductions that can be achieved with provision of reliable piped water, community sewage with treatment and hand hygiene.

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WSUP animation – welcome to the world of urban WASH programming!

How do you design and implement an effective urban WASH programme? In WSUP’s recent publication “The Urban Programming Guide” we set out the many activities involved, from planning and capacity building to improving services and promoting behaviour change. This short animation brings the publication to life and takes you on a virtual tour of some of these activities in action: enjoy the ride!

You can download the Urban Programming Guide for free from our website.

Toilets, trash and social status: the top 10 emergency hygiene challenges

Toilets, trash and social status: the top 10 emergency hygiene challenges | Source/Complete article: Kathy Migiro, Thomson Reuters Foundation | Feb 17 2014

Excerpts:  NAIROBI (Thomson Reuters Foundation) – More than 900 beneficiaries, field practitioners and donors named their most pressing gaps in emergency water, sanitation and hygiene promotion (WASH) services in a 2013 survey.

Congolese refugees gather around dry water taps at Bukanga camp, Uganda, July 17, 2013. REUTERS/James Akena

Congolese refugees gather around dry water taps at Bukanga camp, Uganda, July 17, 2013. REUTERS/James Akena

The Humanitarian Innovation Fund (HIF), which carried out the survey, plans to solve them through open innovation, where grants of up to $20,000 are given to the best new ideas.

Here are the top 10 gaps HIF will tackle (in no particular order):

1)    Latrine lighting – In many refugee camps, latrines are not lit at night making them dangerous for women to use.

Challenge: To light communal latrines at night in a cheap and sustainable manner.

2)    Space saving jerrycan – In emergencies, agencies traditionally buy and distribute jerrycans, which can mean transporting 15 or 20 litres of air. Collapsible jerrycans only last a couple of months before they start leaking.

Challenge: To design a 15 litre jerrycan, costing less than $5, with limited volume when stored, lasting one year.

3)    Excreta disposal in urban emergencies – Earthquakes and floods often cut off urban water supplies and damage toilets. When large numbers of displaced people gather in safe places like schools, sanitation facilities get overwhelmed. Many agencies build raised latrines. But they need to be emptied frequently, with waste being dumped in purpose-built pits or rivers, creating health risks.

Challenges: To develop new products to provide safe excreta disposal in urban environments after disasters. Solutions should consider not only containment, but also emptying and disposal mechanisms.

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“We Can’t Wait”, say WSSCC, Unilever and WaterAid on World Toilet Day

We Can’t Wait – Governments, civil society and business should work together to tackle sanitation for women’s health; say Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council, Unilever and WaterAid

Dowwload the report here. 

ImageA collaborative approach between governments, civil society and business is essential to getting the Millennium Development Goal sanitation target back on track. This is critical to improve the health and prosperity of women worldwide, says a new report jointly published by the United Nations hosted organisation Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council, international development organisation WaterAid and Unilever’s leading toilet brand Domestos.

The report, We Can’t Wait, was presented today at a UN event in New York which celebrates recognition of the first official World Toilet Day. The day serves to remind the world that over 2.5 billion people lack access to an adequate toilet, with devastating consequences in particular for the well-being, health, education and empowerment of women and girls worldwide.

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Request for Proposals: “GSF Mid-Term Evaluation Consulting Services”

ImageThe Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council (WSSCC) has specified in its Medium Term Strategic Plan 2012-2016 that all programmes funded by WSSCC’s Global Sanitation Fund (GSF) are subject to independent mid-term and five-year evaluations. These evaluations are aligned with the overall GSF financing mechanism, which is based on a five-year programme cycle.

Therefore, WSSCC is now calling for proposals by 7 June 2013 for “GSF Mid-Term Evaluation Consulting Services”. For more information about the consultancy, please click on this link:

http://www.wsscc.org/about-us/jobs

The mid-term evaluations of GSF programmes in ten countries will be clustered in two batches of five countries in 2013 and 2014/2015 respectively. The assignment covers design and implementation of the mid-term evaluations as well as analysis, consolidation and dissemination of findings as per the Terms of Reference.

As of 31 March 2013, the GSF programmes are implemented in ten countries: Cambodia, Ethiopia, India, Madagascar, Malawi, Nepal, Nigeria, Senegal, Tanzania and Uganda. In addition, programme preparation is on-going in another six countries; Bangladesh, Benin, Burkina Faso, Kenya, Pakistan and Togo. Sanitation and hygiene awareness-raising and promotion activities in the first ten countries with GSF programmes has resulted in 1.4 million people having improved toilets, and more than 1 million people in nearly 4,000 communities who are now living in open defecation free environments.

Global Sanitation Fund helps 1.4 million people gain improved sanitation

Image

Children in Senegal carry signs to show support for good hygiene practices including handwashing in a celebration confirming this village in Senegal has improved sanitation. The ceremony is in Agnam Civol, a village which was declared open defecation free thanks to efforts through GSF financed programmes in 2012.

The Global Sanitation Fund Progress Report 2012, a new report from the Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council (WSSCC), details programmatic results, reporting methodology and financial data from Global Sanitation Fund (GSF) programmes in Africa and Asia.

In 10 countries – Cambodia, Ethiopia, India, Madagascar, Malawi, Nepal, Nigeria, Senegal Tanzania and Uganda – Global Sanitation Fund Sub-grantees have implemented sanitation and hygiene awareness-raising and promotion activities resulting in:

  • 1.4 million people with improved toilets.
  • More than 1 million people in nearly 4,000 communities now live in open defecation free environments.
  • Almost 10,000 communities have participated in demand-creation activities.
  • 3.8 million people have heard about the importance of good hygiene through community activities and communications campaigns.

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