Tag Archives: India

3 steps to improve rural sanitation in India – a pathway to scale and sustainability

3 steps to improve rural sanitation in India – a pathway to scale and sustainability | Source: World Bank Water Blog, July 7 2016 |

Almost 600 million Indians living in rural areas defecate in the open. To meet the ambitious targets of the Indian government’s Swachh Bharat Mission Grameen (SBM (G)) – the rural clean India mission – plans to eliminate open defecation by 2019.

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Child using a latrine in Rajasthan. Photo credit: World Bank

SBM (G) is time-bound with a stronger results orientation, targeting the monitoring of both outputs (access to sanitation) and outcomes (usage). There is also a stronger focus on behavior change interventions and states have been accorded greater flexibility to adopt their own delivery mechanisms.

The World Bank has provided India with a US$1.5 billion loan and embarked on a technical assistance program to support the strengthening of SBM-G program delivery institutions at the national level, and in select states in planning, implementing and monitoring of the program.

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India – 328 children below 5 die of diarrhoea daily

India – 328 children below 5 die of diarrhoea daily | Source: Times of India, July 11 2016 |

NEW DELHI: Around 328 children under 5 years of age die of diarrhoea every day, latest assessment by the health ministry shows. This has prompted the ministry to intensify its diarrhoea control programme to reach out to over 10 crore children with ORS solution this year from 6.3 crore last year.

Estimates show that over 1.2 lakh children less than five years of age succumb to diarrhoea every year. The primary reasons for diarrhoeal attacks among children are contaminated water and food, malnutrition, inadequate sanitation and lack of immunization. Diarrhoeal deaths are usually clustered in summer and monsoon months

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Handwashing, sanitation and family planning practices are the strongest underlying determinants of child stunting in rural India

Handwashing, sanitation and family planning practices are the strongest underlying determinants of child stunting in rural indigenous communities of Jharkhand and Odisha, Eastern India: a cross-sectional study. Maternal & Child Nutrition, June 2016.

Authors: Jennifer Saxton, Shibanand Rath, et. al.

The World Health Organisation has called for global action to reduce child stunting by 40% by 2025. One third of the world’s stunted children live in India, and children belonging to rural indigenous communities are the worst affected. We sought to identify the strongest determinants of stunting among indigenous children in rural Jharkhand and Odisha, India, to highlight key areas for intervention.

We analysed data from 1227 children aged 6–23.99 months and their mothers, collected in 2010 from 18 clusters of villages with a high proportion of people from indigenous groups in three districts. We measured height and weight of mothers and children, and captured data on various basic, underlying and immediate determinants of undernutrition. We used Generalised Estimating Equations to identify individual determinants associated with children’s height-for-age z-score (HAZ; p < 0.10); we included these in a multivariable model to identify the strongest HAZ determinants using backwards stepwise methods.

In the adjusted model, the strongest protective factors for linear growth included cooking outdoors rather than indoors (HAZ +0.66), birth spacing ≥24 months (HAZ +0.40), and handwashing with a cleansing agent (HAZ +0.32). The strongest risk factors were later birth order (HAZ −0.38) and repeated diarrhoeal infection (HAZ −0.23).

Our results suggest multiple risk factors for linear growth faltering in indigenous communities in Jharkhand and Odisha. Interventions that could improve children’s growth include reducing exposure to indoor air pollution, increasing access to family planning, reducing diarrhoeal infections, improving handwashing practices, increasing access to income and strengthening health and sanitation infrastructure.

Peeing in public still a concern, Modi seeks changes in Swachh Bharat campaign

Peeing in public still a concern, Modi seeks changes in Swachh Bharat campaign | Source: Hindustan Times, June 23 2016 |

Prime Minister Narendra Modi has spotted a gap in his Swachh Bharat campaign: the grotesque but common sight of men urinating in public places.

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The PM’s point was that the earlier tagline – “Making Cities Open Defecation Free” – did not adequately reflect the challenge of public urination across the country. (HT file photo)

Modi has told the Union urban development (UD) ministry to ensure that the government’s outreach doesn’t just focus on open defecation in cities but target urination in public places as well. As the first step, the PM has asked the ministry to change the nomenclature of the campaign’s tagline. In line with the PM’s directive following a meeting on June 1 to review the progress of Swachh Bharat Mission, the ministry has set the ball rolling to call its campaign “Open Urination and Defecation Free Cities by 2019”.

The PM’s point, a senior government official who attended the meeting said, was that the earlier tagline – “Making Cities Open Defecation Free” – did not adequately reflect the challenge of public urination across the country.

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From waste-picker to waste professional: A Bengaluru organisation recycles livelihoods

From waste-picker to waste professional: A Bengaluru organisation recycles livelihoods | Source: The News Minute, June 17 2016 |

Hasiru Dala also creates awareness about segregating dry waste and wet waste.

Thirty-eight-year-old Lakshmi has been working as a waste-picker in Bengaluru for five years. “We are called thieves when we are collecting waste. Some have even gone to the extent of calling the police,” said Lakshmi lamenting the state of waste-pickers in the city. Hasiru (1)

However, all that changed when Hasiru Dala, a social enterprise that organise waste-pickers came forward and provided Lakshmi with an ID card. “The green card from Hasiru Dala helps us avoid such problems,” she said.

Hasiru Dala, an organisation that turn waste-pickers to waste professionals aids the Bruhat Bengaluru Mahanagara Palike (BBMP) in managing Bengaluru’s massive waste production by providing waste management services for homes, apartments, commercial set-ups and events.. From a family wedding to a city-wide marathon, Hasiru Dala (Green Army in Kannada) provides waste management services for all kinds of events.

Along with recycling waste, Hasiru Dala has also managed to recycle the livelihoods of thousands of waste pickers in the city like that of Lakshmi. Shekhar Prabhakar, Managing Director of Hasiru Dala said, “Waste-picking is a job totally dependent on luck. It is not an easy job. Waste pickers bend down hundreds of times in covering a 10 km stretch. We are aiming to create dignified labour by providing waste-pickers with ID cards.” Hasiru Dala has helped around 7500 waste-pickers obtain an ID card.

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Human fecal and pathogen exposure pathways in rural Indian villages and the effect of increased latrine coverage

Human fecal and pathogen exposure pathways in rural Indian villages and the effect of increased latrine coverageWater Research, Volume 100, 1 September 2016, Pages 232–244.

Authors: Mitsunori Odagiri, Alexander Schriewer, et al.

Highlights

  • Application of Bacteroidales MST to evaluate improved sanitation impacts
  • Widespread human and animal fecal contamination detected in homes.
  • Pathogens detected in drinking sources associated with subsequent child diarrhea.
  • Public ponds used domestically were heavily contaminated with multiple pathogens.
  • No decrease in human fecal or pathogen contamination from increased latrine coverage.

In conclusion, the study demonstrates that

  • (1) improved sanitation alone may be insufficient and further interventions needed in the domestic domain to reduce widespread human and animal fecal contamination observed in homes,
  • (2) pathogens detected in tubewells indicate these sources are microbiologically unsafe for drinking and were associated with child diarrhea,
  • (3) domestic use of ponds heavily contaminated with multiple pathogens presents an under-recognized health risk, and
  • (4) a 27 percentage point increase in improved sanitation access at village-level did not reduce detectable human fecal and pathogen contamination in this setting.

 

Approaches to Capital Financing and Cost Recovery in Sewerage Schemes Implemented in India: Lessons Learned and Approaches for Future Schemes

Approaches to Capital Financing and Cost Recovery in Sewerage Schemes Implemented in India: Lessons Learned and Approaches for Future Schemes, 2016. Water and Sanitation Program.

This report aims to highlight some of the successful financial management practices adopted by Urban Local Bodies (ULBs) in India when implementing sewerage schemes. The findings are presented in two parts – the first part of the report discusses the approach adopted for capital financing of sewerage schemes in the state of Tamil Nadu, and the second part presents the findings from a review of the operational expenditure and revenue generation of various ULBs across the country.

The aim of the report is to share successful capital financing and cost recovery practices adopted by ULBs in India and enable improvement in provisioning of sewerage systems (only where feasible and economically viable, typically only in larger towns with a population greater than 50,000) and ensure availability of sufficient funds for proper Operation and Maintenance (O&M) of the schemes implemented.