Tag Archives: Jay Graham

George Washington University Study Documents Variability in Changes to Open Defecation among Sub-Saharan African Countries

Exploring changes in open defecation prevalence in sub-Saharan Africa based on national level indices

About 215 million people in sub-Saharan Africa still defecate in fields, forests or out in the open, a practice that puts people and especially children at risk of diarrheal diseases. Public health experts are calling for an end to such practices by the year 2015 in order to protect the public health.

A new analysis by researchers at the George Washington University School of Public Health and Health Services (SPHHS) looks at how well countries in sub-Saharan Africa are doing when it comes to putting in basic sanitation facilities that would reduce this risky practice.

Jay Graham, PhD, MBA, MPH, an assistant professor of global environmental health at SPHHS and his co-authors looked at data on open defecation in 34 sub-Saharan African countries and estimated any changes in prevalence from 2005 through 2010. Deise Galan, MPH, was the lead author of the study and conducted much of the data analysis as part of her MPH thesis.

The authors found that only three countries were successful in reducing open defecation by 10 percent or more during the study’s time frame. And only one country, Angola, is on track to end the practice by the target date of 2015, according to the authors.

The authors also examined factors that might speed progress, finding that overseas development assistance might help low income sub-Saharan countries defray the cost of putting in place improved sanitation such as pit latrines or basic toilets. Additional research must be done to find other factors that might assist countries in meeting the public health goal of reducing open defecation, Graham and his colleagues said.

Jay Graham – George Washington Global Environmental Health Program

Jay Graham – Bangladesh environmental health photos

Dr. Jay Graham of George Washington University was in Bangladesh and compiled a photo album of his visit at the link below:

Jay Graham, PhD
Assistant Professor of Global Environmental Health
Department of Environmental and Occupational Health
Department of Global Health
E-mail: jgraham@gwu.edu

Jay Graham/USAID – Senegal Environmental Health Photos October 2010

October 2010 – 68 photos of environmental health in Senegal.  If you have comments or questions, contact Jay Graham.

Jay Graham and the Chef de village, M. Diouf

Jay Graham/USAID – Water, sanitation and hygiene in Zambian schools photo collection

Nov 2010 – 49 photos of water, sanitation and hygiene in Zambian schools. If you have comments or questions, contact Jay Graham.

Commonly used handwashing system at schools. The only complaint of this system is that it is occasionally stolen from schools.

Sanitation/water photos from Benin, Kenya, Ethiopia & Indonesia – Jay Graham/USAID


You are invited to view Jay’s photo album: Environmental Health Photos: Benin, Kenya, Ethiopia and Indonesia (2009):