Assessment of Macro-Level Socioeconomic Factors That Impact Waterborne Diseases: The Case of Jordan. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(12), 1181; doi:10.3390/ijerph13121181
The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan is an example of a country that suffers from high water scarcity. Additionally, due to the economic drivers in the country, such as phosphate and potash extraction and pharmaceutical production, the little fresh water that remains is generally polluted. The infrastructure, often antiquated in urban areas and non-existent in rural areas, also contributes to poor water conditions and to the spread of waterborne diseases.
This paper examines the socioeconomic factors that contribute to diarrhea and hepatitis A on a macro level in Jordan and discusses the public-policies that government officials could use to abate those problems. Ordinary least squares time series models are used to understand the macro-level variables that impact the incidence of these diseases in Jordan. Public health expenditure has a significant impact on reducing their incidence.
Furthermore, investment in sanitation facilities in rural regions is likely to reduce the number of cases of hepatitis A. Perhaps the most surprising outcome is that importation of goods and services likely results in a decrease in cases of hepatitis A. However, income has little impact on the incidence of diarrhea and hepatitis A.
The WHO/IDRC/FAO research project on non-treatment options for safe wastewater use in poor urban communities was concluded on 30 April 2010. The report of the final workshop in Amman, Jordan (7-10 March 2010) has now been published.
The objective of the project was to test the applicability of the third edition of the WHO Guidelines for the Safe Use of Wastewater, Excreta and Greywater in Agriculture and Aquaculture (WHO, 2006). For this purpose the following four field studies were conducted:
- Ghana Kumasi: Evaluation of non-treatment options for maximizing public health benefits of WHO guidelines governing the use of wastewater in urban vegetable production in Ghana.
- Ghana/Tamale: Minimizing health risks from using excreta and grey water by poor urban and peri-urban farmers in the Tamale municipality, Ghana.
- Jordan: Safe use of greywater for agriculture in Jerash Refugee Camp: focus on technical, institutional and managerial aspects of non-treatment options.
- Senegal: Proposition d’étude en vue de l’intégration et de l’application des normes de la réutilization des eaux usées et excréta dans l’agriculture.
The research team is now working on the final product, a Guidance Document/Manual for Sanitation Safety Plans to assist national and municipal authorities and other users of the WHO guidelines in their application.
During the 2010 Stockholm Water Week, WHO will launch the second edition of the information kit for the WHO safe use of wastewater guidelines (Sunday 5 September 17:45-18:45).
Project documents and the 2006 WHO guidelines are available on the WHO web page on Safe use of wastewater, excreta and greywater.
Posted in Africa, Middle East & North Africa, Research, Sanitation and Health, Wastewater Management
Tagged Ghana, Jordan, sanitation safety plans, Senegal, urban agriculture, urban sanitation, wastewater reuse, World Health Organization
AMMAN, 4 March 2008 (IRIN) – A crumbling sewage system in the city of Zarqa, 30km east of Amman, could trigger the spread of diseases on a large scale, according to community leaders and residents.
“We warned officials at the Ministry of Water on several occasions that the city’s sewage network is collapsing at a rapid pace under the mounting pressure of the population,” city mayor Mohammad Ghweiri told IRIN.