High-Resolution Spatial Distribution and Estimation of Access to Improved Sanitation in Kenya. PLoS One, July 2016. Authors: Peng Jia , John D. Anderson, Michael Leitner, Richard Rheingans
Background – Access to sanitation facilities is imperative in reducing the risk of multiple adverse health outcomes. A distinct disparity in sanitation exists among different wealth levels in many low-income countries, which may hinder the progress across each of the Millennium Development Goals.
Methods – The surveyed households in 397 clusters from 2008–2009 Kenya Demographic and Health Surveys were divided into five wealth quintiles based on their national asset scores. A series of spatial analysis methods including excess risk, local spatial autocorrelation, and spatial interpolation were applied to observe disparities in coverage of improved sanitation among different wealth categories. The total number of the population with improved sanitation was estimated by interpolating, time-adjusting, and multiplying the surveyed coverage rates by high-resolution population grids. A comparison was then made with the annual estimates from United Nations Population Division and World Health Organization /United Nations Children’s Fund Joint Monitoring Program for Water Supply and Sanitation.
Results – The Empirical Bayesian Kriging interpolation produced minimal root mean squared error for all clusters and five quintiles while predicting the raw and spatial coverage rates of improved sanitation. The coverage in southern regions was generally higher than in the north and east, and the coverage in the south decreased from Nairobi in all directions, while Nyanza and North Eastern Province had relatively poor coverage. The general clustering trend of high and low sanitation improvement among surveyed clusters was confirmed after spatial smoothing.
Conclusions – There exists an apparent disparity in sanitation among different wealth categories across Kenya and spatially smoothed coverage rates resulted in a closer estimation of the available statistics than raw coverage rates. Future intervention activities need to be tailored for both different wealth categories and nationally where there are areas of greater needs when resources are limited.
Handwashing With a Water-Efficient Tap and Low-Cost Foaming Soap: The Povu Poa “Cool Foam” System in Kenya. Global Health: Science and Practice, June 2016.
Authors: Jaynie Whinnery, Gauthami Penakalapati, Rachel Steinacher, Noel Wilson, Clair Null, Amy J Pickering.
The new handwashing system, designed with end user input, features an economical foaming soap dispenser and a hygienic, water-efficient tap for use in household and institutional settings that lack reliable access to piped water.
Cost of the soap and water needed for use is less than US$0.10 per 100 handwash uses, compared with US$0.20–$0.44 for conventional handwashing stations used in Kenya.
KEY PRODUCT FEATURES OF THE POVU POA HANDWASHING SYSTEM
- Soap security: The soap foamer is attached to the system, preventing theft
- Affordability: Just 5 g of powdered or liquid soap mixed with 250 mL of water can provide 100 uses for US$0.10 (cost includes soap and water).
- Hygienic: The innovative swing-tap design is bidirectional and can be used with the back of the hand or wrist, limiting recontamination of hands after handwashing.
- Water-frugality: The water flow is sufficient for handwashing while providing a 30-77% reduction in water usage compared with conventional methods.
- Scalability: Components are specifically designed for low-cost mass production and deployment, estimated at US$12 per unit.
- Adaptable: The 2 handwashing station configurations can be adapted to meet different needs and preferences and can be used in households and institutional settings, such as schools and health centers.
A Surprise Inoculation Against Cholera, 2016. WASHplus.
Communities that embraced the WASHplus and Kenya Ministry of Health community-led total sanitation-plus approach appear to have protected themselves against cholera during a recent epidemic.
Evolution of Solid Waste Management Policy Landscape in Kenya: Analysis of
evolvement of policy priorities and strategies, 2016.
Tilahun Nigatu Haregu, Blessing Mberu, Abdhalah K. Ziraba. African Population and Health Research Center, Nairobi, Kenya
Introduction: Since independence, there have been various policy frameworks developed to guide the management of solid wastes in Kenya. Analysis of the progressive development of the policy landscape would be useful to inform the implementation of existing policies and the formulation of future policies relevant to solid waste management in the country.
Objectives: To explore the evolution of solid waste management policies in Kenya from the
perspective of policy priorities and strategies for solid waste management that address health outcomes.
Methods: This study was an integrative synthesis of the policy priorities and strategies
stipulated by the major solid waste management policies in Kenya since independence and
how they address SWM associated health outcomes. The synthesis addressed the
evolvement, devolvement and segmentation of solid waste management policies as well as
the institutional mechanisms for policy processes and external policies shaping the policy
Results: Analysis of the progressive development of policy architecture indicated that solid waste management policies in Kenya has evolved to specificity in terms of focus, functions and scope. There is a magnificent shift from focusing criminalizing offences to promoting good practices; from generic Acts to specific ones; and from centralized mandates to more decentralized responsibilities. The roles of local level implementation mechanisms is also increasing. However, the environment perspective is more emphasized than the health and economic perspectives of solid waste management principles.
Conclusion: Despite the progressive and chronological development of solid waste
management policy priorities and strategies, their focus on environment dominates over
SWIFT Story of Sustainable Change: Improving access to safe, sustainable sanitation in Nadapal, Turkana, 2016. OXFAM.
In Nadapal, a village in northern Kenya, residents had no access to sanitation, and instead practised open defecation in the bushes. Illnesses including diarrhoea, malaria and cholera were common.
Now, however, many of the households in Nadapal have built their own latrines within easy reach and have access to safe, sustainable sanitation for the first time, after Practical Action began implementing the Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) approach.