Tag Archives: Madagascar

Loowatt – the waterless toilet system

The Loowatt system creates a low-cost and simple solution for waterless sanitation that converts human waste into biogas. We have built and tested a working system in London and see great potential for our toilets to make a difference in the developing world. The key benefits of Loowatt are that it’s easy to use, low-cost, clean and not at all smelly. Along with this, it creates a local supply of biogas.

In July 2011, the Loowatt team spent two weeks in on an intensive study in and around Madagascar’s capital city, Antananarivo, also known as Tana. We’ve outlined some of our observations in a series of photos.

Our objective in Tana was to gather information and explore ways to implement Loowatt systems. We collaborated with Water and Sanitation for the Urban Poor (WSUP), a partnership between NGOs, the private sector, and academia, which engages with local governments and has been working in Tana for several years.  They take a systems-based, market-driven approach to implementing sanitation solutions which was critical in exploring our key topics, including, household costs related to sanitation, energy use, and consumer aspirations. While much of this information is available in existing studies from WSUP, much is new, and all is understood more deeply through first hand investigation and discussions.

We conducted research in the urban center (a.k.a. CUA), the peri-urban area (a.k.a. FIFTAMA), and Ikibo, a rural village 25 miles from the city. In Ikibo, we were hosted by the Madagascar Development Fund, which has transformed the village by providing safe drinking water and creating local enterprise. Everywhere we went, we met with stakeholders in government, NGOs, commercial entities, local academics, enterprises, manufacturers, households, and more.

In Tana there is an urgent need for better sanitation. 75% of city center residents, and 95% of the peri-urban ones rely on dry pit latrines. The entire urban area is without any formal disposal system for fecal sludge. 98% of latrines are emptied by informal service providers or private companies, with no regulation on where fecal sludge is discarded.  We witnessed first hand the dumping of untreated human waste into local watercourses. The city’s current sanitation system remains decentralized.

The Loowatt System fits this situation perfectly, as it provides safe sanitation without the need for central infrastructure, and at the same time delivers valuable biogas and fertilizer. A key task for Loowatt is to understand how value is generated by our system, also taking into account any negative impacts. This will help us to build robust scenarios for the system, which are economically self-sustaining and offer real incentives for adoption.

Low-Cost Options for Sludge Management in Madagascar

Low-Cost Options for Sludge Management in Madagascar, 2011.

WASHplus partner, Practica Foundation, conducted a feasibility study of various technological options for hygienic sludge removal at two public-private toilet/shower sites in Madagascar. Both are currently emptied by informal sector workers under cover of dark, who face serious health hazards and engage in questionable disposal practices, with sludge dumped into waterways or buried nearby in shallow pits.

The assessment combines technical analysis and sociological observation and reporting, giving a vivid picture of the current state of sludge removal and potential for improvements and the impact on the environment and public health. It proposes innovative low-cost options for fecal management methods in three areas: sludge removal/transfer, transportation, and disposal/treatment.

Madagascar: first national Global Sanitation Fund programme launched

The Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council (WSSCC) launched its first national Global Sanitation Fund programme on 22 March 2010, World Water Day, in Madagascar. Approximately US$ 5 million will be disbursed over the next five years to sub-grantees – community groups, non-governmental organisations, etc. – to implement projects and programmes that raise awareness and create demand locally for sanitation. The Global Sanitation Fund (GSF) will not be used directly or indirectly to fund or subsidise toilet construction schemes.

The WSSCC has recently appointed the international non-governmental organisation Medical Care Development International (MCDI) as the “executing agency” for the GSF in Madagascar.

Scope of work in Madagascar: hygiene education, demand creation and awareness-raising

In Madagascar, the GSF supports work programmes that concentrate on hygiene education, awareness raising and demand creation. In doing so, it aims to:

  • Increase significantly the number of families, particularly the poorest, who have sustainable access to basic sanitation and adopt good hygiene practices,
  • Engage institutional and private actors for the long term in promoting basic sanitation that is sustainable, affordable and culturally appropriate, and
  • Spread proven and innovative approaches to sanitation and hygiene at a large scale.

The WSSCC established the GSF to boost expenditure on sanitation and hygiene in developing countries. On average, nationally run programmes will each receive US$ 1 million per year from the fund. The United Nations Office for Project Services (UNOPS) hosts WSSCC, and the GSF is formally a United Nations Trust Fund. The Governments of Australia, the Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom have contributed to the GSF.

Madagascar is the first of seven countries selected for the first round of funding in 2010; the others are Burkina Faso, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Senegal and Uganda.

Read more about the GSF programme in Madagascar.

Source: WSSCC, 22 Mar 2010

USAID Hygiene Improvement Project – French language materials on sanitation and handwashing

Below are links to 2009 “Negotiation Tools” prepared by HIP for work in Madagascar:

Elimination des excrements: outil de negociation, 2009. (pdf, 416KB)

Laver les mains aux moments critiques: outil de negociation, 2009. (pdf, 991KB)

Properte de l’eau de boisson au foyer: outil de negociation, 2009. (pdf, 350KB)

Madagascar: Mobile cameras and water problem – Cameramen will face residents in eleven regions

The “Diorano WASH” project on Madagascar is seeking input from the public. Cameramen will roam around 11 regions interviewing villagers about their water and sanitation problems. The objective is to get a better idea of grassroots opinions and needs, explained Diorano WASH executive Vero Maminiaina. After the interviews, a workshop will be held to find solutions to the problems they bring up.

A description (in French) of the “caméra en ballade” project was published in the April-May-June issue of “Bulletin de liaison Diorano-WASH

From summary by Louise Shaler, SAHRA

Orginal source: allAfrica.com by Fanja Saholiarisoa (taken from L’Express de Madagascar, 21 Aug 2008)

Madagascar – President determined to solve sanitation and water problem

President Marc Ravalomanana of Madagascar is the only president in the world who is attending the current World Water Week being held in Stockholm, Sweden. About 2500 experts and government leaders are here discussing all kinds of issues and experiences relating to water.

At the opening session of the conference on Monday President Ravalomanna said he had set sanitation and safe drinking water problem as the top priority to tackle.

According to a national plan which is called MAP, the goal is by the year 2012 to ensure safe access to drinking water for 65% of the population and good sanitation facilities for 71% of the population.

More – People’s Daily Online