Tag Archives: malaria

WASHplus Weekly: Focus on WASH-related disesases

Issue 135 February 21, 2014 | Focus on WASH-Related Diseases

This issue contains recent studies and reports on several WASH-related diseases: neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), malnutrition, cholera, diarrhea, fluorosis, and malaria. Some of the resources include: a WASH and NTDs global manual and country reports from the Sightsavers Innovation Fund; an article on the origins of the cholera outbreak in Haiti; a review of evidence linking WASH, anemia, and child growth; Cochrane Reviews on the prevention and control of malaria; and additional studies and resources. weekly

We welcome your suggestions for future issues of the Weekly. Topics for upcoming issues include World Water Day 2014, WASH and nutrition, behavior change, community-led total sanitation, household water treatment, and menstrual hygiene management.


Human Health and the Water Environment: Using the DPSEEA Framework to Identify the Driving Forces of DiseaseScience of the Total Environment, 2014. J Gentry-Shields.(Link)

There is a growing awareness of global forces that threaten human health via the water environment. A better understanding of the dynamic between human health and the water environment would enable prediction of the significant driving forces and effective strategies for coping with or preventing them. This report details the use of the Driving Force–Pressure–State–Exposure–Effect–Action (DPSEEA) framework to explore the linkage between water-related diseases and their significant driving forces.

Seasonal Effects of Water Quality: The Hidden Costs of the Green Revolution to Infant and Child Health in India, 2013. E Brainerd. (Link)
This paper examines the impact of fertilizer agrichemicals in water on infant and child health using water quality data combined with data on child health outcomes from the Demographic and Health Surveys of India. The results indicate that children exposed to higher concentrations of agrichemicals during their first month experience worse health outcomes on a variety of measures; these effects are largest among the most vulnerable groups, particularly the children of uneducated poor women living in rural India.

Water, Sanitation and Hygiene: Evidence Paper, 2013. Department for International Development. (Link)
This paper aims to provide an accessible guide to existing evidence, including a conceptual framework for understanding how WASH impacts health and well-being and a description of methods used for ascertaining the health, economic, and social impacts of WASH. It also presents the available evidence on the benefits and cost-effectiveness of WASH interventions.


WASH and the Neglected Tropical Diseases: A Global Manual for WASH Implementers, 2014. Sightsavers, et al. (Link) | (Blog post)
These manuals are free to download and distribute. New users must create an account to download the manuals, which are divided into disease-specific chapters that describe the transmission cycle, symptoms, and disease burden of the WASH-related NTDs. Each chapter includes information about WASH activities that are most essential to the control of each disease. Maps of disease prevalence are provided to enable identification of disease-endemic communities most in need of sustainable WASH services. Country-specific versions of the manual are available so far for Brazil, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Chad, Ethiopia, Indonesia, Kenya, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Nigeria, Sudan, Tanzania, and Uganda.

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UNICEF – Community case management of diarrhea, malaria and pneumonia

Community case management of diarrhea, malaria and pneumonia: Tracking science to policy and practice in sub-Saharan Africa, 2012.


Community case management (CCM) increases access to treatment to those beyond the reach of health facilities and has the potential to more equitably address the three largest causes of child mortality in sub-Saharan Africa: diarrhea, malaria and pneumonia.

Based on data from UNICEF country offices, we provide a profile of government policies and implementation of CCM diarrhea, pneumonia, and malaria for sick children aged 2 months-5 years across sub-Saharan Africa in 2010. This offers an aggregated analysis and disaggregated tables for subSaharan Africa and where possible we explain the status of outliers based on correspondence with UNICEF country offices. We also compare our findings with previous data collected by Countdown 2015 to describe trends in CCM pneumonia policy and implementation for sub-Saharan Africa. The following bullet points represent key findings.

  • The majority of governments in sub-Saharan Africa have policies supporting CCM of diarrhea, malaria or pneumonia, yet important exceptions remain. Moreover, even when supportive CCM policies exist, CCM programs are not always implemented, and far fewer are implemented at scale.
  • Even as CCM pneumonia lags the furthest behind, significant change has occurred. The number of countries in sub-Saharan Africa with supportive CCM pneumonia policies has more than doubled since 2005.
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Kenyan scientists push for cleaner water to curb climate-linked disease

NAIROBI (AlertNet) – Medical scientists and environmental activists are urging the Kenyan government to speed up efforts to tackle climate-related diseases, which are on the rise in the east African nation.
The $15 billion national budget announced in June includes a strategy for responding to climate change with funding for projects to expand irrigation activities in dry areas and improve water quality, for example.
But some experts think it doesn’t go far or fast enough. A group of scientists has joined forces with the Forest Action Network (FAN) and Kenya Medical Research Institute (KEMRI) to lobby for urgent measures to deal with the impact of warmer temperatures and unpredictable rains on health.

Research carried out by KEMRI suggests waterborne diseases and malaria are on the rise, with the country’s recent drought making matters worse. In the northern region of Turkana, for example, communities have had to rely on shallow wells for their drinking water, which are often dirty.

Dominic Walubengo of FAN told AlertNet the civil society coalition hopes a draft policy strategy it has submitted to several politicians will be discussed in parliament by the end of the year, and form the basis for new laws to address the negative health effects of climate change.

Hopes for tougher action on environmental issues are rising as Kenya’s new constitution – approved in a referendum earlier this month and due to be promulgated on Friday – is regarded as more supportive of green policies.

The three-year drought, which eased with better short rains late last year, has also added to the urgency, as meteorologists fear another prolonged dry spell could be on the way.

Walubengo noted a rapid increase in waterborne diseases earlier this year, including cholera and diarrhoea, which can harm children’s longer-term health. Persistent diarrhoea leads to malnutrition and stunted growth, which can in turn undermine cognitive development, including education and productivity, according to KEMRI.

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Zambia: Lusaka declares war against malaria, cholera

Lusaka District Commissioner Christah Kalulu is confident [that the city] will have fewer cases of cholera and malaria, and suffer less disaster than it has during rainy seasons over the past decade.

This follows the successful implementation of the District Disaster Reduction (DDR) programme which was launched on August 18, 2009.

By June 2009, 162 deaths occurred countrywide out of 7,587-reported cases of cholera. Lusaka alone had a mortality rate of 30.

The new intervention measures were adopted from the United Nations (UN) lead Programme on Risk Reduction – a global platform on risk reduction currently shared worldwide.

The whole exercise is expected to cost K12.5 billion and so far Lusaka District has raised K5.2 billion from DDR’s own resources since the intervention came as a post budget strategy.

The funds are meant to cover health, water and sanitation, bridges and crossings, garbage collection and drainage clearance.

The Disaster Management and Monitoring Unit (DMMU) which falls under the office of the vice-president, made available temporary water tanks and mobile lavatories in high-risk areas to try and reduce the impact of the disease.

The Lusaka District Commissioner together with the area Members of Parliament and members of the community developed a plan of action [which] will perhaps help answer questions on why [there are] priority [high-risk] areas, like Mandevu and Kanyama.

In 2008, areas like Mandevu experienced floods that left a trail of destruction largely due to the blocked drains and unplanned construction.

The Lusaka District office with the help of prisoners has unblocked drains containing stagnant water, which are not only a potential source of a cholera outbreak but also a breeding ground for mosquitoes that cause malaria.

Mindful of the hazards associated with unblocking drainages, the Lusaka DDR has bought protective clothing, which included overalls, gumboots, and facemasks. The DDR also provides meals for the prisoners.

In areas where there has been erratic water supply or no water at all, the DDR is installing permanent water reticulation stands and sinking bore holes. The Lusaka Water and Sewerage Company (LWSC) has put up 11 permanent water pipes, and is replacing temporary water stands put up in 2008.

Such programmes however cannot succeed without the participation and interest of the community and it is for this reason that Ms Kalulu has embarked on a hygiene promotion crusade. Some of the programmes will include drama with the Muvi Television soap, Banja crew and musicians like Joe Chibangu.

Source: Sam Phirim, Times of Zambia / allAfrica.com, 27 Oct 2009