Tag Archives: monitoring

Seminar on monitoring of decentralised WASH services in West Africa

This is a bilingual seminar on Monitoring the decentralised delivery of WASH services in rural areas and small towns in West Africa in Ouagagoudou, Burkina Faso organised by IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre and pS-Eau.

Date: 07 – 09 April 2014

Designed in priority for stakeholders working in collaboration with local governments, this seminar will be an opportunity to share experiences in the field of monitoring WASH services at local level in West Africa.

The seminar will be structured around four themes:

  1. Monitoring and evaluation to support local governments’ water and sanitation strategic planning
  2. Monitoring and evaluation to improve water, sanitation and hygiene services
  3. Monitoring and evaluation to manage water and sanitation services
  4. Monitoring and evaluation to regulate water and sanitation services

but related topics are also of interest to the organisers.

Deadline for submission of abstracts: 17 February 2014

More information: www.irc.nl/page/82341

WASHplus Weekly: Community-Led Total Sanitation

Issue 126 December 13, 2013 | Focus on Community-Led Total Sanitation

This issue updates the May 2013 Weekly on CLTS with more recent reports and other resources. Included are presentations from a sanitation workshop in Benin, reviews of CLTS successes and shortcomings, a UNICEF overview of CLTS in Asia and the Pacific, a video on school-led total sanitation in Nepal, among others. weekly

REVIEWS

Testing CLTS Approaches for Scalability: Systematic Literature Review (Grey Literature), 2012. V Venkataramanan. (Full text)
This study presents findings from a systematic literature review on the effectiveness and impact of CLTS programs. This document was prepared by The Water Institute at UNC for Plan International USA as part of the project Testing CLTS Approaches for Scalability, funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

Community-Led Total Sanitation in Africa: Helpdesk Report, 2013. Health & Education Advice & Resource Team (HEART). (Full text)
Decreases in diarrhea, cholera, and skin infections were the main health outcomes reported in this study. However, methodological weaknesses, including the lack of clarity around the proportions of the population exposed before and after implementation of CLTS to these conditions, made it challenging to determine the quality of the evidence presented.

The Cost of a Knowledge Silo: A Systematic Re-Review of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Interventions, 2013. M Loevinsohn. (Full text)
The health impacts of CLTS have yet to be comprehensively assessed, although it is evident that people realize a range of benefits such as dignity, privacy, security—especially for women—and a clean environment, which they may value more than protection from infection.

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IRC launches reference guide on non-sewered sanitation

Photo: IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre

Photo: IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre

Sanitation experts at IRC have compiled the first version of a reference guide on low-cost sanitation for non-sewered service models, SanPack for short.  Dr Christine Sijbesma and Joep Verhagen have collected materials that cover services for all stages of the sanitation life cycle, from preparation activities to the emptying, recycling and productive use of toilet contents. Per stage you can find a short intro text and links that lead you to relevant documents on a specific topic.

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Mapping sustainability assessment tools to support sustainable water and sanitation service delivery

Mapping sustainability assessment tools to support sustainable water and sanitation service delivery, 2013.

Authors: Julia Boulenouar, Ryan Schweitzer and Harold Lockwood. Water Services That Last.  water_services

This paper reviews five different sustainability assessment tools that are currently in use for programme monitoring of WASH interventions. The selected tools all have a developed framework that has each been pilot tested and produces an objective and quantifiable output (e.g., final score or percentage) that can be used to trigger improvements to programme design or take remedial actions. The review team found a larger number of tools in circulation, but did not include those limited to one particular technology or to the organisational aspects of sustainability.

Domestic water and sanitation as water security: monitoring, concepts and strategy

Domestic water and sanitation as water security: monitoring, concepts and strategy. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 13 November 2013.

David J. Bradley and Jamie K. Bartram

Domestic water and sanitation provide examples of a situation where long-term, target-driven efforts have been launched with the objective of reducing the proportion of people who are water-insecure, most recently through the millennium development goals (MDGs) framework. Impacts of these efforts have been monitored by an increasingly evidence-based system, and plans for the next period of international policy, which are likely to aim at universal coverage with basic water and sanitation, are being currently developed. As distinct from many other domains to which the concept of water security is applied, domestic or personal water security requires a perspective that incorporates the reciprocal notions of provision and risk, as the current status of domestic water and sanitation security is dominated by deficiency.

This paper reviews the interaction of science and technology with policies, practice and monitoring, and explores how far domestic water can helpfully fit into the proposed concept of water security, how that is best defined, and how far the human right to water affects the situation. It is considered that they fit well together in terms both of practical planning of targets and indicators and as a conceptual framework to help development. The focus needs to be broad, to extend beyond households, to emphasize maintenance as well as construction and to increase equity of access. International and subnational monitoring need to interact, and monitoring results need to be meaningful to service providers as well as users.

Harold Lockwood – USAID and Rotary International adopt innovative sustainability monitoring tool

USAID and Rotary International adopt innovative sustainability monitoring tool | Source: Harold Lockwood, Water Services That Last – August 12, 2013 |

This is great news and fantastic to see USAID adopting and promoting this approach which aims to really track and better understand the underlying causes of poor sustainability in the WASH sector. Sustaining WASH services is complex and dependent not only the hardware (the pumps, latrines and pipes), but also a range of the so-called software elements, for example reliable management entities, long-term external support and monitoring, adequate financing and so on. Measuring coverage is one thing, looking at functionality is also a useful proxy, but if we really want to know where the pinch-points are and how something so seemingly simple as water flowing out of a tap can fall down, it requires a comprehensive and powerful tool.  wash_sustainability_tool

This is just what USAID and Rotary International have developed with the new Sustainability Index Tool, or SIT, which has just been released and is available for download on the WASHPlus website here. The tool was developed by Aguaconsult over a period of more than a year and a half and has been tested in three country programmes, with a further two countries being rolled out in the coming months.

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Latin American and Caribbean countries agree on joint sanitation monitoring

Sanitation in Guatemala. Photo: LatinoSan 2013

Delegates attending LatinoSan 2013 have agreed to set up a Latin-American and Caribbean Observatory on Sanitation. The observatory will monitor progress on sanitation in those countries that have signed up to the LatinoSan initiative. Sub-regional and national sanitation scorecards are already available online.

There will also be a Regional Meeting of Ministries of Sanitation every 2 years.

LatinoSan3-Declaration

These are two of  the commitments written up in the Panama Declaration at the conclusion of  the 3rd Latin American and Caribbean Sanitation Conference, LatinoSan 2013. The conference took place in Panama City from 29 to 31 May 2013.

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New Global Study Pinpoints Main Causes of Childhood Diarrheal Diseases

New Global Study Pinpoints Main Causes of Childhood Diarrheal Diseases, Suggests Effective Solutions

A new international study published today in The Lancet provides the clearest picture yet of the impact and most common causes of diarrheal diseases, the second leading killer of young children globally, after pneumonia. The Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS) is the largest study ever conducted on diarrheal diseases in developing countries, enrolling more than 20,000 children from seven sites across Asia and Africa.

GEMS, coordinated by the University of Maryland School of Medicine’s Center for Vaccine Development, confirmed rotavirus – for which a vaccine already exists – as the leading cause of diarrheal diseases among infants and identified other top causes for which additional research is urgently needed. GEMS found that approximately one in five children under the age of two suffer from moderate-to-severe diarrhea (MSD) each year, which increased children’s risk of death 8.5-fold and led to stunted growth over a two-month follow-up period.

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Developing and Monitoring Protocol for the Elimination of Open Defecation

Developing and Monitoring Protocol for the Elimination of Open Defecation in Sub-Saharan Africa, 2013.  UNICEF.

Eliminating open defecation is increasingly seen as a key health outcome, with links to reduced stunting, improved educational and positive health outcomes for children. In Sub Saharan Africa, over 35 countries are implementing some form of CLTS, ranging from TATS in Tanzania to CLTSH in Ethiopia. Since the introduction of CLTS in 2005 in the region, rapid scale-up has been achieved with suggested numbers of ODF communities in the range of 30,000 affecting over 15 million people in SubSaharan Africa. Several countries have set aggressive targets for elimination of Open Defecation in rural areas for the next five years which often include not only safe disposal of faeces but handwashing facilities, cleanliness and solid waste management.

Sustaining the progress made through the application of the CLTS process is emerging as a challenge with experience suggesting that sustainability is determined by the process followed to achieve ODF. Rapid scale up in SSA is arguably linked to the fact that CLTS is based on the concept of triggering community-wide behaviour change, requires no subsidies and integrates easily into existing health programming structures. Current focus is on ‘triggering’ communities into action; while considerably less resources and emphasis on following up and mentoring of communities ‘post-triggering’.

This paper reviews process and protocol for defining, reporting, declaring, certifying ODF and sustaining ODF, highlighting where the process varies between countries and potential determinants of sustainability within the process itself. Critical questions include what elements (should) constitute an ODF protocol, what are the determinants of sustainability and what impact does target-setting have on achievement of ODF goals in country?

India, New Delhi: garbage trucks to be fitted with GPS and radio devices

Big brother will soon be watching over garbage truck drivers in East Delhi once the local municipal corporation installs an electronic tracking system. The East Delhi Municipal Corporation (EDMC) plans to install global positioning system (GPS) and radio frequency identification devices (RFID) in its garbage trucks.

This will enable the EDMC to track the garbage trucks movements and monitor their work performance.

The electronic devices are linked to an  ‘e-municipal solid waste disposal system’, which takes pictures of the vehicles at the garbage station and landfill site, when they pick up and dispose of the waste.

At the end of each day, the GPS will be used to submit a daily route mapping report on the areas cleaned.

East Delhi generates nearly 2,000 metric tonnes of garbage every day and has nearly 150 dump yards.

M/s AKS Software Ltd won the tender to install the electronic tracking system, which costs 19.2 million Rupees (US$ 353,000).

Related news: India, New Delhi: using Facebook and SMS to keep the city clean, Sanitation Updates, 15 Apr 2011

Source: Hindustan Times, 28 Mar 2013 ; PTI/Business Standard, 28 Mar 2013