Dr Val Curtis
“The most cost-effectiveness intervention for improving public health [is] improving hygiene promotion [and] without change in hygiene behaviour, we get none of the benefits of water, none of the benefits of sanitation”. This was one of the messages that Dr Val Curtis conveyed in her introduction to the session on “Behavioral change and social sustainability” at the WASH Conference 2011 (download audio of her presentation).
Some 224 conference delegates from over 100 organisations in 40 countries came to Brisbane, Australia for the WASH Conference 2011. Below is a selection of the presentations on sanitation – powerpoints + audio files – given on 16-17 May. (If you have never heard him speak before, don’t miss the presentation by CLTS-guru Kamal Kar). The presentation streams dealt with institutional, environmental, social and financial sustainability respectively.
Most of the presentations were about Asia, the focus area of conference co-organiser/sponsor AusAid. There were also a few presentations from Africa, a region where AusAid is looking to expand its WASH activities (see AusAid focus regions/countries).
WASH Conference 2011 presentations on sanitation
Community Led Total Sanitation (CLTS), Origin, Spread and Scaling up
Presented by Kamal Kar
Slideshare presentation | Download audio
Planning Behaviour Change: Chances and Challenges
Presented by Dr. Christine Sijbesma, IRC
Slideshare presentation | Download audio
Posted in Africa, Campaigns and Events, East Asia & Pacific, Economic Benefits, Hygiene Promotion, Sanitary Facilities, Sanitation and Health, South Asia
Tagged Bangladesh, Cambodia, changing behaviour, finance, Indonesia, Nepal, Rwanda, Timor-Leste, Uganda, Viet Nam, WASH Conference 2011, Zimbabwe
Prisoners in Orissa state, India and in Sunsari District, eastern Nepal, are being deprived of proper sanitation and safe drinking paper, according to local newspaper reports.
At a meeting in April 2011 on jail administration, Orissa’s Chief Minister Naveen Patnaik asked officials about sanitation and drinking water arrangements in state prisons. Inspector General of Prisons Pranabindu Acharya said he was making arrangements for aqua guards (water purifiers) in some of the jails. In most of the jails toilet facilities were poor and insufficient for the inmates, officials admitted. With more than 12,000 inmates in 86 jails in the State, overcrowding was a problem in at least 18 jails. In many jails, “conditions are appalling”, especially in tehsil (county) level jails where not even rudimentary conveniences have been provided.
While the Directorate of Prisons has made arrangements to invest 13.7 million rupees (US$ 305,000) for water supply and sanitation in at least 24 jails, the Chief Minister asked for a greater allocation of funds.
Source: The Pioneer, 08 Apr 2011
The 524 inmates and staff at the regional jail in Jhumka, Sunsari district, have been deprived of safe drinking water and well-managed toilets.
“The jail administration has made written requests to the jail department and Ministry of Home Affairs several times for managing safe drinking water and constructing well-managed toilets but to no avail,” said jailor Bhojraj Regmi.
Source: Naya Patrika / NGO Forum, 09 Jan 2011
Related news: Human rights: UN investigator tells of horrors and insanitary conditions of world prisons, E-Source, 12 Nov 2009
Nepal may be justifying a US$ 15 million investment in separate school toilets for girls for the wrong reasons suggests an IRIN news article.
The government says separate toilet would:
reduce the number of girls missing classes or dropping out because of the lack of private changing facilities during menstrual cycles – despite a recent study suggesting menstruation has very little to do with why girls attend school less regularly than boys.
While improved school sanitation may improve health, Emily Oster, one of the principal authors of a study in Nepal of the impact of menstruation on school attendance said:
“As far as we know, there is no quantitative evidence of the impact of separate toilets on girl’s schooling… what we can say based on our paper is that menstruation has only a very tiny impact on schooling for girls.”
This view was supported by Bed Prasad Kaju, headmaster of Sanjewani Model High School, a state school in Dhulikhel Municipality, 20km north of Kathmandu:
“The girl students have bigger problems than menstruation affecting their studies or class attendance, like helping their parents in household chores”. [...] He said his school did not have enough toilets but more than 50 percent of his 1,100 students were girls. They attended regularly and their achievements matched those of the boys, he added.
Most of Nepal’s 28,000 state secondary schools lack girls’ toilets and in the few that do have them at least 250 girls are forced to use one latrine, said education specialist Helen Sherpa from international NGO World Education.
The new government scheme plans to install separate girls’ toilets in 5,500 secondary schools by the end of 2011, and in all secondary schools by 2014-15, said Khagaraj Baral, director of planning at the Department of Education.
Related web site: WASH in Schools
Source: IRIN, 18 Ma 2011
The government is all set to construct girl-friendly toilets in 5500 community schools throughout the country to enroll more girl students in the schools. The government has allocated Rs. 1.1 billion [US$ 15 million] for the purpose. According to Department of Education, the drop out rate of girl students has increased due to lack of girl-friendly toilet in schools.
The school enrollment rate of girl students is 87 percent in primary level and 84 percent in secondary level. However, the drop out rate is 7 percent in primary level and 11 percent in secondary level (class 10).
“Various researches and studies have shown that dearth of girl friendly toilet in school premises is one of the reasons for girl students’ dropping out of schools. Therefore, the government has given priority to toilet construction in schools,” the Department of Education states.
“Menstruating girl students often remain absent due to lack of separate toilets for them,” said Gita Kharel, Principal, Ratna Rajya School Baneshwor, adding, “The government is doing a good job of constructing girl-friendly toilets this year.” “There is need of such toilets in the districts outside the Kathmandu Valley,” she added.
Deputy Director and chief of Gender Equity Section at Department of Education Ganesh Prasad Poudel told that the government is allocating Rs. 200,000 [US$ 2,730) to each community school for constructing a toilet. “In the absence of separate toilets for girls and boys, many girl students do not attend school regularly. Therefore, the government has given priority to construction of girl-friendly toilet,” said Poudel, adding, “We will construct necessary infrastructures so that girl students can change their sanitary pads during their menstruation period and maintain personal hygiene.” There are 32,000 community schools throughout the country.
Related web site: WASH in Schools
Source: Kantipur / NGO Forum, 31 Jan 2011
Feb 7, 2011 – Kathmandu, Nepal: USAID recently began two new projects directly with two local Nepali organizations to improve access to water, sanitation, and hygiene for more than 65,000 people in Nepal’s mid- and far-western region, a US Embassy press release said Monday.
The first project – School-Led Safe Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Improvement project – (SWASTHA) will benefit approximately 45,000 people in the mid-west. The second – Safe Practices on Water, Sanitation and Hygiene project (Safe-WASH) – will improve access to safe drinking water and sanitation facility and provide training on environmental sanitation, personal hygiene, irrigation and kitchen gardening to 27,000 rural people in the far-west, according to the release.
UN-Habitat, the Executing Agency for the Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council’s (WSSCC) Global Sanitation Fund (GSF) programme in Nepal, is now seeking expressions of interest for potential sub-grantees to carry out GSF work on the ground in the country.
UN-Habitat will implement the hygiene and sanitation programme in five districts: Arghakhanchi, Bajura, Bardiya, Sindhupalchowk and Sunsari, and in the municipalities of Dharan, Gularia, Inaruwa, Itahari and Tikapur.
Sub-grantees can be Non Governmental Organizations (NGOs), Community Based Organizations (CBOs), private firms and local government bodies.
Deadline: 28 January 2011
For more details read the full Call for Expression of Interest (EOI)
Related web site: WSSCC – Global Sanitation Fund
Please do not send EOIs or requests for information to Sanitation Updates
Unified CPN (Maoist) leaders at the inauguration ceremony of their party meeting in Palungtar, Gorkha, on 21 Nov. 2010. Photo: Ramkrishna Sharma / Nepalnews.com
A local Nepal is collecting the urine of over 6,000 cadres and leaders attending the sixth extended meeting of the Unified Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) in Palungtar, Gorkha. The intention is to convert the urine into fertiliser, said SEWA Nepal coordinator Srirendra Pokhrel.
The Extended Meeting Housing and Construction Sub Committee has constructed more than 200 toilets, costing Rs 500 (US$ 7.10) each for the meeting, which started on 21 November 21, 2010. Each toilet has a plastic pan and there are 300 funnels and jerrycans to collect urine.
In July 2010 SEWA-Nepal hit the headlines with its “Take a Pee & Get One Rupee” initiative in Chitwan.
Related web site: RCNN – Nepal Node for Sustainable Sanitation (NNSS)
Source: Bhimlal Shrestha, Nepal Samacharpatra / NGO Forum, 16 Nov 2010
While Pakistan is struggling with devastating flood waters, neighboring Nepal is fighting a water problem of its own: Contamination by human feces. Open defecation is so widespread in Nepal that health groups are making it a priority to change how and where people relieve themselves.
But when you have to go, you have to go. And for many people in Nepal, that often means outdoors.
“They feel that to do the open defecation in the open space or in the open air, they feel it is very much comfortable for them in the rural parts of the country,” said Roshah Raj Shrestha, who works with the U.N. Habitat in Kathmandu.
Nearly 60 percent of people in Nepal do not have toilets at home, according to Shresta. That means about 16 million people are defecating in the open.
SIDDHIPUR, 23 August 2010 (IRIN) – In the fight against disease and child mortality, Nepal has been using some unusual tactics to get people to stop defecating in the open.
Children blow whistles at offenders and post name-and-shame flags in fresh, stinking piles; NGOs help communities turn their waste into “humanure” for crops; and one women’s group “calculated” how much waste tainted the food supply.
“We told the community, `If we don’t make proper toilets, it’s like we’re all eating our faeces,’” said Saraswati Maharjam, a member of the sanitation and hygiene education team in Siddhipur village on the outskirts of Kathmandu.
“In one year, we’re eating 2kg of faeces, and this is if you live far from the public toilet. If you’re near the public toilet, it’s even more,” Maharjam said, referring to the rough estimate her women’s group came up with to scare neighbours into building toilets.
Open defecation is a major problem in Nepal. According to the UN Children’s Fund (UNICEF), only about 46 percent of Nepalese have latrines in their homes – and in the least developed districts in the west, that figure drops to 25 percent.