- Vaporizing toilet claims - by: Marijn Zandee March 25, 2018Dear Diane, If I remember correctly, feces is about 75% water. So, for 200 gram feces and 1.5 L urine per day, I come to about 3% of original volume if fully dehydrated (for which would need an oven). Therefore, a claim of around 5% volume after successful dehydration in their system seems reasonable. (I assumed that the density of solids in feces is close t […]
- Low cost secondary treatment of household wastewater using vermifiltration - by: goeco March 25, 2018Hi Kevin, I'm not a microbiologist, but aerobic secondary sewage treatment processes use microorganisms in a managed aerobic habitat to biochemically oxidise the pathogens. Wastewater treatment plants, whether domestic or municipal mostly use the same method whereby the primary treatment removes solids and the secondary treatment step involves aeration […]
- Donate to end open defecation in deprived communities - by: F H Mughal March 24, 2018I hope, the international donor agencies will take a notice of your request. Meanwhile, I suggest that you write to them, and send photos to them, showing the current state of affairs. F H Mughal
- Importance of Wastewater Reuse - by: F H Mughal March 24, 2018Importance of Wastewater Reuse Colombo-based CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems and International Water Management Institute has produced an 8pp paper on Wastewater Reuse in Numbers. As a scene setter, the report says: “Rapid urbanization in the developing world is pushing up demand for water and food, while also generating ever larger volu […]
- WaterAid Report: Out of Order - The State of the World’s Toilets 2017 - by: F H Mughal March 24, 2018Out of Order - The State of the World’s Toilets 2017 WaterAid recently (Nov 2017) has produced a very absorbing and stimulating short (28pp) report, titled: Out of Order - The State of the World’s Toilets 2017. Typically, when a report has a title that starts with “The State of the . . .,” it is assumed that it would a large report. But, this is a short inte […]
- Vaporizing toilet claims - by: Marijn Zandee March 25, 2018
Tag Archives: Pakistan
Low Cost Handmade Sanitary Pads! From Design to Production A Step Forward in Menstrual Hygiene Promotion in Pakistan, 2012.
By Hina Israr & Syed Shah Nasir, IRSP-Pakistan
ABSTRACT: “In order to manage the basic phenomena of menstruation, sanitary materials are used by women of all ages, almost from 14 to 45 years of age, though branded material are available in urban areas but difficult in rural, in those areas where such materials are available, they are expensive and difficult to afford and manage as well, so it has been planned by IRSP to introduce MHM specific low cost technologies in Pakistan for not just providing ease in their practices but also for paving way for women empowerment through involving them in large scale sanitary pad production.”
Dec. 1, 2011 – Entrepreneur turns Pakistan’s tons of garbage into a handsome profit while saving the environment.
Clean” and “green” are words not usually associated with the streets of Lahore, but a garbage collecting business is changing the image of the Pakistani city.
And it is making millions of dollars in the process, by turning waste into liquefied petroleum products and fertiliser for farmlands.
Millions remain without proper sanitation in flood-affected Pakistan.
“Sanitation is ‘the invisible problem’ in disaster relief and by highlighting the problem, behaviour change happens,” according to Bill Fellows, the water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) global cluster coordinator working with United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), the WASH cluster lead agency.
Hygiene is four times as important as clean drinking water for preventing diarrheal disease according to research published in The Lancet medical journal . Whilst in flood devastated Pakistan, access to clean drinking water is on the rise, thanks to the efforts of WASH cluster member agencies, with 2.5 million people receiving clean drinking water every day, the attention to sanitation has become critical in preventing disease outbreaks.
UNICEF, in cooperation with the government, is implementing hygiene education in relief camps through a “no open defecation campaign”. “This is based on a system developed in Bangladesh and helps affected communities take a first step to achieve basic sanitation in disaster affected communities”, said Fellows.
In addition, the hygiene education campaign includes teaching flood survivors to build open pit latrines. As part of the flood relief efforts 2,723 emergency latrines have been built, benefitting 40,000 people.
Female health workers and Pakistan Red Crescent volunteers are also on the frontline of hygiene education, which is one of the most critical components in reducing water-borne disease. To date, these volunteers have helped educate almost 750,000 people on the benefits of good hygiene.
To compliment hygiene education, soap and hygiene kits are needed. UNICEF reports 400,000 hygiene kits are in the pipeline along with three million bars of soap.
“It is crucial in disaster response that flood affected communities receive latrines and soap, as well as hygiene education to prevent illness and disease”, said Manuel Bessler, Head of the Office of Coordination for Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) in Pakistan.
In addition to water and sanitation flood relief activities, UNICEF and its partners are engaged in an integrated approach to provide humanitarian assistance to millions of flood survivors through health and nutrition, child protection, education and prevention of child trafficking.
 The same conclusion can be found in a recent article by Cairncross et al. in the International journal of epidemiology
Read the latest Pakistan Floods WASH-related news on ReliefWeb
Related web site: Global WASH Cluster
Source: ReliefWeb, 14 Sep 2010
Aug 30 (Reuters) – As floodwaters recede in Pakistan, experts are warning the real problem — disease, food shortages and malnutrition — might just be starting.
There have been 38,000 reported cases of acute diarrhea and at least one confirmed cholera death, health experts wrote in The Lancet journal.
The U.N. has warned of other imminent waterborne diseases, including typhoid fever, shigellosis and hepatitis A and E, and vector-borne diseases like malaria and dengue fever.
News alerts on WASH Disease Outbreaks – http://washalerts.wordpress.com/
Water Res. 2009 Dec;43(20):5225-35
Roof-harvested rainwater for potable purposes: application of solar collector disinfection (SOCO-DIS).
Amin MT, Han MY. Department of Environmental Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Abbottabad, 22060, Pakistan. email@example.com
The efficiency of solar disinfection (SODIS), recommended by the World Health Organization, has been determined for rainwater disinfection, and potential benefits and limitations discussed. The limitations of SODIS have now been overcome by the use of solar collector disinfection (SOCO-DIS), for potential use of rainwater as a small-scale potable water supply, especially in developing countries. Rainwater samples collected from the underground storage tanks of a rooftop rainwater harvesting (RWH) system were exposed to different conditions of sunlight radiation in 2-L polyethylene terephthalate bottles in a solar collector with rectangular base and reflective open wings. Total and fecal coliforms were used, together with Escherichia coli and heterotrophic plate counts, as basic microbial and indicator organisms of water quality for disinfection efficiency evaluation. In the SOCO-DIS system, disinfection improved by 20-30% compared with the SODIS system, and rainwater was fully disinfected even under moderate weather conditions, due to the effects of concentrated sunlight radiation and the synergistic effects of thermal and optical inactivation. The SOCO-DIS system was optimized based on the collector configuration and the reflective base: an inclined position led to an increased disinfection efficiency of 10-15%. Microbial inactivation increased by 10-20% simply by reducing the initial pH value of the rainwater to 5. High turbidities also affected the SOCO-DIS system; the disinfection efficiency decreased by 10-15%, which indicated that rainwater needed to be filtered before treatment. The problem of microbial regrowth was significantly reduced in the SOCO-DIS system compared with the SODIS system because of residual sunlight effects. Only total coliform regrowth was detected at higher turbidities. The SOCO-DIS system was ineffective only under poor weather conditions, when longer exposure times or other practical means of reducing the pH were required for the treatment of stored rainwater for potable purposes.