Tag Archives: sanitation financing

Umande Trust Sanitation Payment Innovations

Umande Trust Sanitation Payment Innovations being used at the Bio-Centers within the Urban Informal settlements.

Sanitation financing models for the urban poor – new IRC thematic overview paper

Sijbesma, C., 2011. Sanitation financing models for the urban poor. (Thematic overview paper ; 25).  The Hague: IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre
120 p. : 44 boxes, 1 fig., 4 tab.
Includes references, glossary and lists of resources.
Available at: <http://www.irc.nl/top25>

The provision of sanitation services in low-income urban areas is one of the greatest challenges in development. Population growth in developing countries currently outpaces sanitation growth, especially in urban areas. Consequently, in urban areas where poor people reside, and where “formal” sanitation services are not available to them, they experience the compounded effect of serious economic disadvantages such as high risk to public health; a dirty and contaminated environment; no basic human dignity and safety for a large part of the world’s population, especially for adolescent girls and women.

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Meeting the challenge of financing water and sanitation : tools and approaches

OECD (2011). Meeting the challenge of financing water and sanitation : tools and approaches. (OECD studies on water). Paris, France, OECD Publishing. 142 p. : 13 fig., 5 tab.
ISBN : 9789264120525 (PDF) ; 9789264120518 (print)
doi: 10.1787/9789264120525-en

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This report provides an overview of key issues related to financing the water and sanitation sector in both developed and developing countries (part 1), and presents tools and approaches developed by OECD for both policy makers and practitioners (part 2).

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Sanitation costs and financing – presentations at IRC’s 2010 Symposium

The following papers on sanitation costs and financing were presented at the IRC Symposium 2010, ‘Pumps, Pipes and Promises: Costs, Finances and Accountability for Sustainable WASH Services’, held in The Hague from 16-18 November.

The economics of sanitation initiatives (ESI) for sanitation decision making in Southeast Asia. Author: Guy Hutton

This presentation discusses cost data from 5 Southeast Asian countries in various forms (by technology, by site/project, by hardware/software, by financing source, by timing, and under different infrastructure capacity use levels) to aid decision makers in intervention selection and to draw more general lessons about sanitation financing, efficiency and sustainability. Cost data were triangulated from household surveys, project or provider documents and local market surveys to estimate investment and annualized life cycle costs per household and per individual.

Full paper

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WSP/ADB – Sanitation Finance in Rural Cambodia

Sanitation Finance in Rural Cambodia: Review and Recommendations. Andy Robinson. Water and Sanitation Program; Asian Development Bank. May 2010.

Download Full-text (pdf, 1.37MB)

The study primarily contains a comparative analysis of different approaches to financing sanitation:  CLTS, project subsidies and social marketing. The report also makes a suggestion for a sanitation financing system based on conditional cash transfers, which to date have been mainly used in education and health care.

Some of the main findings include the following:

Comparative analysis of case studies

The comparative analysis confirms that public finance for sanitation in Cambodia is not reaching those below the poverty line. Ninety percent of the public finance for the large ADB program goes to non-poor households, and the two sanitation marketing project will require households to contribute at least USD 30 in order to obtain a latrine, whereas the willingness to pay data imply that USD 10 is the maximum amount that most poor households are willing to spend on a latrine.

The Plan CLTS program promotes far cheaper and simpler facilities than the other programs, which should be more affordable and appropriate for poor households. However, 35 percent of households in its program communities continue to practice open defecation, and most of these open defecators are likely to be poor households.

The use of public finance to subsidize the development, promotion and marketing of appropriate sanitation products is to be encouraged, but there is a risk that the current sanitation marketing programs will not benefit many poor households. It is important that an appropriate amount of public finance is directed towards developing and marketing products and services that are specifically targeted at the poorest households and those that cannot afford the USD 30 sanitation core package.

Finally, few of the programs examined have been successful in achieving collective sanitation outcomes, such as open defecation free communities, which should be the ultimate aim of all sanitation programs (in order to achieve the optimal benefits). The population segment that practices open defecation in the program communities is largely made up of poor households, and generally includes those with the highest disease burdens, i.e. those that are most likely to transmit diseases to others through unsafe excreta disposal. As a result, the benefits achieved by these sanitation programs may be limited.

WSP – Financing On-Site Sanitation for the Poor

Financing On-Site Sanitation for the Poor A Six Country Comparative Review and Analysis, 2010

Full-text: http://www.wsp.org/UserFiles/file/financing_analysis.pdf (pdf, 2.36MB)

Sophie Trémolet with Eddy Perez and Pete Kolsky.  Water and Sanitation Program (WSP).

This study aims to improve understanding of the finance of on-site household sanitation through careful analysis of practical field experience in a wide range of projects. The Sanitation and Hygiene Global Practice Team of the World Bank Water and Sanitation Program (WSP) initially conceptualized this study to offer better guidance to sector professionals developing on-site sanitation projects and programs.

The study addresses such basic questions as:

• How much does provision of access to on-site sanitation cost, that is, once all costs (hardware and software) are taken into account?

• Do the type and scale of sanitation subsidy affect provision and uptake? How?

• How can the public sector most effectively support household investment in on-site sanitation?

• Should it be via investment in demand stimulation, subsidies to households or suppliers, by support to credit schemes, or by other means?

• Should hardware subsidies be provided or should public spending be focused on promoting demand or supporting the supply side of the market? Where hardware subsidies are adopted, what is the best way to ensure that they reach their intended recipients and are sustainable and scalable?

• What innovative mechanisms (such as credit or revolving funds) can be used to promote household sanitation financing?

Asia – National Policy and Financing for Sanitation

Below is a link to a recent presentation at the National Sanitation Conference, 8 December 2009, in Jakarta Indonesia.


A. Success factors for sanitation development in Asia

B. National approaches to sanitation development

  • Thailand
  • Vietnam

C. Financing Sanitation

  • Urban Sanitation in Vietnam
  • Rural Sanitation in India

D. Key lessons for sanitation progress