Tag Archives: sanitation legislation

Rwanda, Kigali: more connections to sewerage system planned

Kigali Eco-Toilet. Photo: Eugene Dusingizumuremyi / SuSanA

The capital city of Rwanda has turned a delay in funding into an opportunity to revise its plans so that more areas get connected to a new centralised sewerage system. Construction of a US$ 70 million wastewater treatment plant in Giti Cyinyoni, Nyarugenge District, was due to start in 2012 but has been delayed by one year.

The lack of a centralised sewage system in Kigali (pop. 1 million) has been forcing real estate developers to provide onsite sewerage systems for new housing units. Schools, hospitals and other public buildings are already required by law to have their own sewerage systems. In future all these onsite systems will be connected to the new centralised system.

In 2008, according to a survey, 80% of the people in Kigali still used pit latrines [1]. These have proved to be not only hard to maintain, but also expensive to manage in the long run. That’s why the city council recently passed a bylaw that instructs developers to install flush toilets connected to septic tanks.

[1] Hohne, A., 2011. State and drivers of change of Kigali’s sanitation : a demand perspective : paper presented at the East Africa practioners workshop on pro-poor urban sanitation and hygiene, Laico Umbano Hotel, Kigali, Rwanda, March 29th – 31st 2011 . [online] The Hague, The Netherlands: IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre. Available at: <http://www.irc.nl/page/64586>

Related website: Kigali City – Water and Sanitation Programmes


  • Susan Babijja, City Council reviews sewage management plan, New Times, 26 Oct 2012
  • Rwanda: Kigali sewage system delayed by funds, Rwanda Express /  allAfrica.com, 14 Jun 2012
  • Eric Didier Karinganire, Sewage in Kigali still an issue of concern, Rwanda Focus, 09 Apr 2012

Uruguay: legislation approved to make sewerage connections compulsory

All households in Uruguay must now have a  sewerage connection. Uruguay’s House of Representatives passed a bill making sewerage connections compulsory on 5 July 2011.

The new bill includes provisions to provide subsidies and grants to those who cannot afford a connection, as well as fines for those who fail to comply with the new law.

In the capital Montevideo, the local government will administer the new law, while state water utility OSE will be responsible for the rest of the country.

While improved rural sanitation coverage was estimated to be 99% in 2008 (WHO/UNICEF, 2010), some 50,000 households are still not connected to a sewerage network. In some areas only 15% of households have sewerage connections.

Source: La Republica [in Spanish], 05 Jul 2011

Ghana – Use Of Pan Latrines Outlawed In Accra

The Accra Metropolitan Assembly (AMA) says effective January 1, this year, the use of pan latrines in the metropolis has been outlawed. Consequently, the assembly has warned that it will begin prosecuting offenders, since it has given enough public education for residents to convert their facilities to approved ones.

The move is part of attempts to comply with a Supreme Court order, which directed the assembly to completely phase out the use of the pan latrines in the metropolis by 2010. In has been two years since the Supreme Court ordered the assembly to stop the use of the facility across the national capital due to its environmental and health implications. But the AMA admits that the January 1, 2010 deadline as many as 5,294 households were still using this type of facility.

A coalition of some human rights organizations took the issue to the court, arguing that the carrying of human excreta in containers by human beings was a violation of their human rights, based on which the Supreme Court ruled that the assembly should phase out the facility, beginning this year.

Statistics made available by the Metropolitan Public Health Department of the AMA indicated that 5,002 residences, three industrial and 243 hospitality joints, as well as 46 schools in various parts of the city, were still using the pan latrines as of last year.

It further revealed that 70 per cent of residents in the metropolis did not have access to their own places of convenience and, therefore, relied on public ones, including the pan latrine facilities to attend to the call of nature, a situation which made a complete phase-out of the facility by the deadline, unattainable.

Those who are unable to endure the long queues find their way to the beaches and bushes to engage in “free range”, a practice which is common along the coast and also comes with dire environmental implications.

According to the Director of Metro Public Health, Dr Simpson Anim Boateng, pan latrines were being used all across the city though very common at areas such as Nima, Avenor, La, Nii Boi Town and Lapaz.

“Insignificant numbers of the facility can also be found in all the 11 sub-metros of the AMA,” he said.

In the Ablekuma North sub-metro alone, a total of 50 households were still using the facility, he said.

The use of the facility, according to Dr Anim Boateng, was against the AMA bye law and gave an assurance that the AMA would begin prosecuting offenders, since it had given enough public education for residents to convert their facilities to approved ones.

Aside the Supreme Court order, the Head of Environmental Protection and Standard Enforcement, Mr Daniel Kofi Opare, also explained that under the Ghana Environmental Sanitation Policy, all pan latrines nationwide are expected to be phased-out this year. Under the Urban Environmental Service Project (UESP), there are interventions for households who wish to convert their pan latrines to approved facilities.

Source – http://news.peacefmonline.com/news/201001/35932.php

Zambia – Public Health attributes dirt to lack of enforcement of law

National Deputy Director of Public Health and Research, Fordson Nyirenda says lack of enforcement of the law results in accumulation of filth in most districts around the country.

Mr. Nyirenda said lack of enforcement of the Food and Drugs Act, the Public Health Act and the Trade Licensing Act among others, put consumers at risk of getting preventable diseases.

He bemoaned the current filthy status of most districts in the country which he said were a major contributing factor to poor health indicators considering the high prevalence rates of preventable diseases.

Mr. Nyirenda called for the resumption of regular medical examinations for all food handlers countrywide as provided for by the law after realizing that the number of defaulters was high in Livingstone and other districts.

Meanwhile, Livingstone Principal Resident Magistrate Davis Mumba called for a reduction in donor dependency in programs aimed at improving sanitation and uplifting the standard of living for Zambians.

Magistrate Mumba urged law enforcement officers to deal with people that were deliberately breaking the law with impunity like illegal retail traders.

He encouraged health inspectors in collaboration with other stakeholders to conduct regular inspections of public premises to ensure strict adherence to the law.

Magistrate Mumba said this today during the closure of the Community Led Total Sanitation (CLTS)-Legal Enforcement workshop at Woodlands Lodge in Livingstone.

The workshop was held from 4th -7th August with support from UNICEF and managed to close Murdochs Model Bakery, Maramba Confectionary and a number of bars, taverns and other trading places for operating under unsanitary conditions and for violating the law.

Source – Lusaka Times

India – Court notice to Delhi government on anti-scavenging law

New Delhi, May 8 (IANS) The Supreme Court Friday asked the Delhi government to explain its failure to implement a central law against manual scavenging that provides for elimination of dry latrines and rehabilitation of scavengers.

A bench of Chief Justice K.G. Balakrishnan issued notice after the petitioner Safai Karmachari Andolan (Sanitary Workers’ Movement) was able to demonstrate that there were at least 15 dry latrines existing in Delhi’s northeast district with at least five people still engaged in manual scavenging.

The petitioner, in fact, through a government’s reply under transparency law on the number of dry latrines in Delhi, demonstrated that the state government itself has acknowledged existence of 1,085 manual scavengers in Delhi.

The petitioner earlier had told the court, on the basis of its own survey, that there were 14,479 manual scavengers to be rehabilitated in Delhi after their job loss following elimination of dry latrines.

The Employment of Manual Scavengers and Construction of Dry Latrines (Prohibition) Act was passed by the Union Government in 1993 with an aim to finish the demeaning profession of carrying night soil on head and rehabilitate the scavengers.

The law also provided for appointment of an executive authority for prosecution of the owners of the dry latrines.

As per the petitioner, though most of the states have already adopted the law and are striving to achieve its aim and objective, Delhi, apparently under the impression that it has no dry latrines or manual scavengers in its territory, have shown no hurry in adopting the law.

In fact, an affidavit filed by the Delhi government in March 2008 “categorically denied existence of any such latrine from where scavengers lift night soil manually and carry on their heads to the sites of disposal.”

The government, however, had admitted in its affidavit that there are latrines from where night soil flows into open drains and scavengers push the night soil with the help of brooms and also sludge in wheel-barrows up to the disposal point.”

Upset by the revelation that the Delhi government considered demeaning only the task of carrying night soil by scavengers on their heads and apparently treated pushing it with broom in the open drain as acceptable, the court issued notice to the Delhi government for its failure to implement the anti-scavenging law till now.

Earlier on April 30, the court had also sent to district magistrates the details of over 2,000 dry latrine owners in over 25 districts all over Punjab, Haryana and Rajasthan seeking their explanation for their failure in demolishing the latrines and prosecuting the owners.

The Safai Karmachari Andolan has been waging a relentless legal battle since 2003 seeking implementation of the 1993 law against scavenging and elimination of the profession, undermining human dignity.

Read More – Thaindian News

Ghana – Assemblies urged to prosecute Sanitation offenders

Mr Las Bayou. Upper West Regional Environmental Health Officer has urged the Municipal and District Assemblies to prosecute people who flout sanitation bye-laws to deter them.

“This problem will continue to stay with us unless the Municipal and District Assemblies begin sending such offenders to court, especially those who do not keep their surroundings clean.”

He said only Jirapa, among the nine Municipal and District Assemblies in the region, had on a few occasion’s prosecuted people who infringed on the bye-laws and urged the other Assemblies to also do same.

Mr Bayou who spoke to the Ghana News Agency at Wa on the challenges his out fit faced in the management of waste in the region, said they would in future publish the names of all offenders to serve as a deterrent.

He said people in Wa, the regional capital, even refuse to confine their animals and allow them to roam freely and that when the animals are caught by the authorities impounded and their owners fined, “there was always an outcry.”

He was not happy that after the massive clean up exercise about two months ago, people had gone back to their old ways of dumping refuse indiscriminately.

“The drains have been re-choked with waste because residents were not cooperating with Environmental health officers and Zoomlion to keep the area tidy.”

Mr Bayou commended Zoom Lion, Plan Ghana, the Ministry of Health and the Community Water and Sanitation Agency for supporting efforts to ensure environmental cleanliness in the communities.

Source – Modern Ghana

Uganda – 90 Masaka men arrested for lack of pit latrines

OVER 90 people in Kooki county in Rakai district have been arrested for not having pit latrines in their homesteads, the district health inspector, Kaddu Lubega, has said.

Lubega said the culprits were charged at the Grade I Magistrate’s Court in Lwanda town, which fined them sh80,000.

Lubega, who led the three-day health operation in the sub-counties of Byakabanda, Kacheera, Kyalulangira, Rakai town council and Dwaniro, urged residents to change their attitude on health issues.

The district medical officer, Dr. Robert Mayanja, said most residents were comfortable disposing of human waste in the bushes.

“That is why we experience severe cases of diarrhoea and other diseases caused by poor sanitation,” Mayanja said.

He accused LC, who did not have pit latrines of failing to lead by example. “We expected the LCs to join us in the campaign, but many of them went into hiding when they learnt of our advance to their villages,” Mayanja explained.

He said the operation would be conducted regularly in all sub-counties. “Those who were fined were also instructed to construct latrines. We shall carry out another operation to see if any improvement has been made. If not, we shall re-arrest and prosecute them,” he said.

Source – New Vision

Philippines – Dagupan okays first of its kind health, sanitation code

DAGUPAN CITY, Jan. 16 (PNA)–The city council here has passed Dagupan’s own comprehensive health and sanitation code which was dubbed as a “milestone legislation”.

City Health Officer Leonard Carbonell hailed the code authored by Councilors Jesus Canto and Michael Fernandez, that codified all national laws and existing city ordinances dealing on health and sanitation.

He said he was able to ask the authors of the code to insert as one of its provisions proper septic management practices for homes and industries so that the city’s aquifer would be protected.

The code was passed during the regular session on Monday by the city council presided over by Vice Mayor Belen Fernandez.

The overall objective of the code is to make the land, air and water of Dagupan safer for the benefit of its more than 150,000 population, he said.

The code was drafted by the council consistent with the Sustainable Sanitation in East Asia (SUSCEA) of which Dagupan City is one of the pilot places in the Philippines.

The sanitation code likewise has provisions regarding food and water and also sets sanitary requirements for all establishments and business, practices which were not observed before.

“It is a milestone legislation in the sense that you can count in your fingers the number of cities with existing sanitation code and gladly, Dagupan is now one of them,” he said.

Read More – Philippines News Agency

Nigeria – Sokoto Establishes Sanitation Mobile Courts

Following the re-introduction of monthly sanitation in Sokoto by the state government, sanitation mobile courts are to be established to try violators of sanitation laws.

Permanent Secretary, Sokoto State Ministry of Environment Engr. Muhammed Jabi Shagari said this while addressing offenders during the flag off of the monthly exercise at the weekend. Six vehicles and 32 motorcycles were apprehended for violating sanitation rules.

According to Engr. Jabi Shagari, the Sokoto state Task Force Committee on Environmental Sanitation was lenient to them as the exercise was re-launched that day.

He said the committee would be very strict during subsequent exercise and that anyone apprehended would be punished accordingly.

The permanent secretary called on motorists and motorcyclists to refrain from movement during the exercise, while urging all members of the public to cooperate with the state government in order to ensure good sanitary condition of the state capital.

He said it is vital that traders and residents ensure that their surroundings are kept clean at all times.

Chairman of the committee and state commissioner for Local Government Affairs, Alhaji Tsalha Sidi Mamman who noted the large turn out of the various groups and organizations for the sanitation exercise, said the gesture contributed to the success recorded.

He said it is their determination to ensure the restoration of the lost glory of the state capital as one of the cleanest cities in the country.

Read More – allAfrica.com

Uganda: Kayunga leaders arrested over latrines

ABOUT 26 people, one of them a sub-county councillor and four LC1 officials, have been arrested for lack of pit latrines [and taken to court]. This follows [an] operation by the Police led by the Kayunga sub-county health inspector, Abasa Kaneha.

[…] Most of the residents did not have pit latrines and many, including the NRM chairman for Nakaseeta parish, Andrew Kalyango fled, Kaneha said. “We will arrest anybody irrespective of which leadership position they hold. We plan to cover the entire sub-country,” he said.

Kaneha said the operation was meant to ensure that the cholera outbreak that was reported in Kayunga town would not spread to the villages.

Source: Charles Jjuuko, New Vision, 30 Nov 2008