Tag Archives: sanitation

Request for Proposals: The effects of poor sanitation on women and girls in India

The SHARE Research Consortium and the Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council (WSSCC) have joined together to issue a Request for Proposals (RFP) with a total value of £400,000 for research on sanitation and women in India. Four priority research questions have been identified, further details are available in the revised RFP documents:

1. The conditions and effects of WASH in health facilities, particularly around childbirth

2. Operational research into menstrual hygiene management

  • Psycho-social stress linked to ignorance, taboos, shame and silence around menstruation
  • The link between menstrual hygiene and infections and/or other health related impacts
  • Operational research on the design and unit costs for safe reuse and disposal options

3. Psycho-social stress resulting from violence experienced by women in the course of using sanitation facilities or practicing open defecation.

4. The practice of limiting, postponing or reducing food and liquid intake to control the urge to urinate or defecate: the prevalence of this behaviour and related health risks.

Proposals must be led or co-led by an Indian research institution. SHARE and WSSCC envisage making three or four grants of which at least £200,000 is earmarked for questions 1 and 2 above. However, depending on the quality and size of the proposals received, SHARE and WSSCC may make a single grant only or, alternatively, more grants of lesser value.

The deadline for submission of proposal is 17:00 GMT on 29th March 2013For full details please refer to the RFP document. Results will be announced by the end of April.

SHARE – Request for proposals: The effects of poor sanitation on girls and women in India

Feb 21, 2013 – The SHARE Research Consortium is issuing a Request for Proposals (RFP) for research into the effects of poor sanitation on girls and women in India. Proposals must be led or co-led by an Indian research institution and must address at least one of the following questions:

  • Psycho-social stress resulting from violence experienced by women in the course of using sanitation facilities or practicing open defecation.
  • Operational research into menstrual hygiene management or determining the link between menstrual hygiene and infections.
  • The practice of limiting, postponing or reducing food and liquid intake to control the urge to urinate or defecate: the prevalence of this behaviour and related health risks.

The deadline for submission of proposal is 17:00 GMT on 15 March 2013.

Email: aurelie.jeandron@lshtm.ac.uk

SHARE – Sanitation Markets: Using economics to improve the delivery of services

Sanitation Markets: Using economics to improve the delivery of services along the sanitation value chain, 2012.

Sophie Trémolet. SHARE.

In summary, a number of actions could be undertaken based on these findings:

  • Make the case for investment in sanitation;
  • Channel financing more effectively and increase the effectiveness of public funding;
  • Foster demand for sanitation at all levels of the value chain;
  • Influence the restructuring of the provision of transport services for on-site sanitation, particularly by formalising small-scale private providers,
  • Estimate the value of the various sanitation by-products and identify ways of monetizing such value in a sustainable manner through reuse.

In order to support future actions, key areas of research should be explored, including:

  • Improve the estimates of the benefits of investing in sanitation and compare the benefits with the costs of sanitation in a broader range of countries and local contexts, as well as evaluate the cost-effectiveness of alternative investments;
  • Identify the most effective financing mechanisms, including ways of attracting new resources into the sector (e.g. from beneficiaries) and via re-use and overcoming the affordability constraint;
  • Identify ways of stimulating demand and overcome information asymmetry for households, entrepreneurs or even the government;
  • Identify ways of organising service provision and scaling-up of small-scale entrepreneurs.

Sanitation economics research has a critical role to play and should be fostered. On this basis, budding and ineffective sanitation markets can be transformed into thriving markets where the full value of sanitation by-products is fully realised and reinvested into the system so as to foster increased investments and generate efficiency gains.

Global Review of Sanitation System Trends and Interactions with Menstrual Management Practices

Global Review of Sanitation System Trends and Interactions with Menstrual Management Practices, 2012.

Kjellén, M., C. Pensulo, P. Nordqvist and M. Fogde. Stockholm Environment Institute.

This review of sanitation system trends and interactions with menstrual management practices has been conducted as part of the broader project on Menstrual Management and Sanitation Systems. sei

It starts with a review of trends in the development of urban sanitation systems and then explores the interaction between menstrual management and sanitation systems, mainly relating to the issue of disposal of used menstrual blood absorption materials. Finally, it proposes a framework of interactions by positioning a range of issues of particular relevance for menstrual management into the different parts of the sanitation system.

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New job at WSSCC: Senior Monitoring and Evaluation Officer P4

ImageWSSCC has an exciting senior-level (P4) monitoring and evaluation (M&E) position based in Geneva, Switzerland. The application deadline is 30 December 2012. The purpose of the post is to coordinate the effective monitoring and evaluation of WSSCC’s work in line with its Medium Term Strategic Plan (MTSP)for the period 2012-2016. The incumbent is expected to establish a conceptual framework for the monitoring & evaluation practice, provide leadership to strengthen WSSCC’s capacity, and to develop systems and engagement strategies to enable WSSCC to:

  • Effectively monitor and evaluate progress against its MTSP for the period 2012-2016, and regularly derive evidence-based data and information feeding into organizational and wider sector knowledge and learning.  
  • Identify and collaborate on evaluation research initiatives of relevance to the sector as a whole.    
  • Represent WSSCC in inter-agency meetings and high-level forums on monitoring and evaluation.
  • Develop partnerships and facilitate inter-institutional relations with key research institutions specializing in water, sanitation and hygiene.

WSSCC’s mission is to ensure sustainable sanitation, better hygiene and safe drinking water for all people.  Good sanitation and hygiene lead to economic and social development, yielding health, productivity, educational and environmental benefits. WSSCC manages the Global Sanitation Fund, facilitates coordination at national, regional and global levels, supports professional development, and advocates on behalf of the 2.5 billion people without a clean, safe toilet to use.  WSSCC is hosted by UNOPS, supports coalitions in more than 30 countries and has members around the world.

For information on the United Nations salary scale and post adjustment formula, visit here: http://www.un.org/Depts/OHRM/salaries_allowances/salary.htm.


Recognising and dealing with informal influences in water and sanitation services delivery

Donor-funded water and sanitation improvement programmes tend to focus on and operate within the formal frameworks put in place by municipal or national governments. These frameworks broadly comprise the rules, laws and official policies that govern water and sanitation services delivery. However, in order to plan and implement programmes effectively, it is essential that implementers also recognise and take into account the influence of more subtle informal factors, such as conventions, norms of behaviour, and unwritten cultural codes of conduct.

This Topic Brief draws on WSUP’s experience in the 6-city African Cities for the Future (ACF) programme, to illustrate how both formal and informal factors can influence local service provider and low-income consumer behaviours. The Topic Brief also provides practical guidance aimed at sector programme managers to help explore and respond to some of the issues raised here, with a view to achieving greater project sustainability.

For more resources like this, visit www.wsup.com/sharing

Delegated management of water and sanitation services in urban areas: experiences from Kumasi, Ghana

Historically, water and sanitation service providers in low-income countries have struggled to accommodate rapid urban expansion, and particularly to serve the poor in peri-urban areas. One way to approach these challenges is to develop alternative approaches to service delivery, incorporating innovative institutional and contractual arrangements, and involving partnerships between communities, utilities, the private sector and regulators.

This Topic Brief focuses on a delegated management model developed in Kumasi (Ghana), where a WSUP-facilitated partnership between the water utility, the Metropolitan Assembly and a community management committee is starting to play a key role in expanding the provision of clean, affordable water and improved public toilet facilities in the low-income district of Kotei. The Brief explores the nature of the model, the contractual arrangements, and the central role of the community management committee. It also examines the potential for scale-up and replication.

For more resources like this, visit www.wsup.com/sharing

Links to WASHplus Weeklies on Sanitation

Below are links to WASHplus Weeklies on sanitation-related topics:

Video Resource: What’s working in urban water and sanitation?

Water and sanitation services, as we all know, remain grossly deficient in slum districts of cities throughout the less-developed world.

Water & Sanitation for the Urban Poor (WSUP) has produced a series of short videos relevant for everybody working to improve water and sanitation services for low-income urban consumers, highlighting ways in which African water utilities and other key actors are achieving real progress in this area.

The first four videos in the series are now available to watch on our YouTube channel and cover the following topics:

Emptying pits: a serious business
Paulinho, a small entrepreneur in Maputo, Mozambique, is moving into the pit emptying business. This video shows him at work.

Fix the leaks, serve the poor
How reducing non-revenue water (NRW) can free up water for low-income communities: experience from Antananarivo, Madagascar.

Surcharging for sanitation
Charging for sanitation through water bills. This video explores Lusaka’s sanitation levy system.

Connecting people
Tariff reform and social marketing as strategies for increasing household connections to the water network: experience from Maputo, Mozambique.

*The next set of videos in this series will follow shortly. Watch this space!

Estimating inequities in sanitation-related disease burden and estimating the potential impacts of propoor targeting,

Estimating inequities in sanitation-related disease burden and estimating the potential impacts of propoor targeting, 2012.

Richard Rheingans, et al. SHARE.

The objectives of this study are to model for 10 low-income countries in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia:

  • The distribution of sanitation-related health burden by wealth quintile
  • The distribution of health benefits for targeting different wealth quintile groups
  • The spatial distribution of sanitation-related health burden and benefits

Key results

Although inadequate data and knowledge prevent definitive answers to the questions outlined in the objectives for this study, the results of this modeling exercise based on exisiting information suggest the following:

  • The health burden of poor sanitation falls disproportionately on children living in the poorest households
  • This increased health burden is the result of both greater exposure to infection and increased susceptibility among children in these households
  • The increased exposure among these children is a function of their increased likelihood of having no access to a private facility, having to use shared facilities and being more likely to live in an area with a high density of people without sanitation
  • Children in poor households are more likely to be susceptible (resulting from lower nutritional status) to diarrhoeal diseases and suffer higher mortality
  • Improvements in sanitation for households in the poorest quintile may bring significantly greater health benefits than improvements in the richest quintiles
  • The sanitation-related burden differs between rural and urban settings, but children in poor households in both settings consistently suffer disproportionately
  • While rural populations generally have lower levels of access, the sanitation associated risk may be greater for the urban poor due to the increased likelihood of these households being in areas with a high density of people without sanitation


  • There are important limitations of this study that must be highlighted: (1) the relative importance of the three exposure variables which are modeled as being equal; (2) the susceptibility index contains only three variables (nutritional vulnerability, Vitamin Adose, and ORS treatment); (3) only diarrhoeal mortality is considered in estimating the distribution of health impacts, and the total burden and its distribution would change if other sanitation-related health impacts were included
  • More effective targeting strategies to reach children in the poorest households are required to both protect those children and households most at risk and to maximize the potential impact of sanitation investments. Although the study did not directly consider
    the relative costs associated with reaching the poorest households, the results suggest that targeting the poorest households could yield substantially higher health returns and may also bring greater economic returns
  • Better use of available information on the distribution of sanitation-associated risk and health burden could strengthen planning and resource allocation
  • Current monitoring indicators at the national and global levels fail to incentivise targeting the areas of greatest need and potential greatest impact. Existing limitations in monitoring efforts include a focus on household coverage rather than child coverage; the use of household access, not community level exposure measures; no direct targets for focusing improved access on the poorest; and, in some settings, the under counting of the most vulnerable urban populations
  • Additional information on the relative risk of shared facilities and density of population without sanitation would allow for better identification of priority areas and targeting of interventions.

See the related press release, policy briefing and podcast.