Tag Archives: Sudan

Sudan: sanitation lessons from Pact’s WRAPP Equatoria Program

The Water for Recovery and Peace Program (WRAPP) began in late 2004, after Pact Sudan received USAID funding for programming in Greater Upper Nile and Greater Bahr el Ghazel Regions. The WRAPP Equatoria program (April 2007 – June 2009) was an extension of the WRAPP program into 7 counties in Eastern and 4 counties of Central Equatoria States.

The WRAPP Equatoria program involved partnerships with Sudanese NGOs, INGOs and private sector contractors, with a strong focus on enhancing the capacity of local partner organizations. The sanitation component of the program included the construction of one eco-san public toilet, one school pit latrine and 280 household latrines. The program also established more the 230 Water and Sanitation Management Committees (WSMCs). The total program benefited an estimated 100,000 people including 30,000 returnees. Pact was able to leverage additional funding from other sources to construct three more public latrines.

Pre-construction awareness raising important for sustainability

WRAPP has been able to demonstrate that hygiene and sanitation awareness coupled with the installation of improved water facilities can trigger behavior changes in the community that will subsequently lead to a demand and initiative for sanitation facilities. At the same time WRAPP also discovered the importance of creating awareness about hygiene and sanitation in advance of the implementation of water facilities. This approach can guarantees a more enthusiastic participation, which leads to a higher level of acceptance and ownership by a larger group of community members, and supports greater sustainability of the program by reinforcing the link between water, sanitation and hygiene.

A role for returnees

Most returnees have been exposed to the practice of using sanitation facilities and knowledge of hygiene
awareness during their stay in either refugee camps or towns in neighboring countries. Returnees spearheaded the construction of household latrines in their host communities. They replicated what they had learned from outside and assisted in spreading hygiene and sanitation messages. Their active involvement was critical to spurring organic demand for improved sanitation.

Public latrines should be privatized

Pact observed that community management of public latrines didn’t yield positive, sustainable outcomes. WRAPP does not intend to continue the construction of public latrines until there is an improvement in the general public’s attitude toward public latrines. Some places like Kapoeta town have shown positive progress in maintenance and use by privatizing their public latrines, and WRAPP has been in discussion with community management committees and local authorities to convince them to privatize their public latrines. WRAPP will continue to discuss with the local administration in Kaya to privatize the eco-san public latrine built in this program.

Eco-san public latrine constructed in Kaya (Uganda-Sudan border town). Constructed at the Truck parking yard to also serve immigration and customs offices. Photo: Pact

Success story: demand-driven household latrines in Kit One

Kit One is a small community in Magwi County comprised of Acholi returnees who had been living in Ugandan refugee camps during the war. Having been sensitized to household latrines during their time in Uganda, the community responded very enthusiastically to the household latrine project implemented by AWDA (Acholi Women’s Development Association). In addition to the 20 pits dug for the project, 40 other families also dug pits. In light of this demand-driven response for sanitation, WRAPP modified the grant to AWDA to add materials so that the additional 40 latrines can be built as well. In addition WRAPP delivered 15 plastic slabs from other areas where the CBOs have failed to distribute the slabs to household and supplied to AWDA. The 15 slabs were used to complete house hold latrines successfully.

Household latrine in Kit One supported by AWDA ( Mrs. Rebecca, AWDA leader, on the right). Walls and roof was later built by the households. Photo: Pact

Web site: Pact – Water for Recovery and Peace Program (WRAPP)

Source: Pact Sudan Country Program (2009). Water for Recovery and Peace Program Equatoria (WRAPP Equatoria) : final report. Washington, DC, USA, USAID. Download full report

Sudan, Mundri: better hygiene means more girls stay in school

Many girls who do manage to go school in South Sudan, are forced to stay home one week a month – that’s three months a year, because there is no money to buy sanitary napkins. The Swedish SCA group, through its brands Libresse, Edet and Tork, is sponsoring a project by Oxfam Novib and Mundri Relief and Development Association (MRDA) to improve school sanitation in South Sudan.

Together with MRDA, Libresse is providing scholarships to girls and comfort kits, hygiene bags that include sanitary napkins, soap, underwear and washing powder. Edet is financing the construction of school toilets in the Mundri region of South Sudan. Tork is providing rainwater harvesting systems, soap and handwashing facilities.

The budget for the three-year project (2010-2012) in Mundri is 4.5 million and aims to cover 55 schools and build 16 rainwater harvesting systems. SCA and Oxfam Novib launched their partnership on 17 March 2010. Libresse and Edet are donating part of the proceeds from the sale of their personal hygiene products (sanitary napkins, toilet paper and tissues) to the project. Consumers who buy the products are also encouraged to donate money to the project through Oxfam Novib.

Libresse and Edet have launched campaign web sites for the Mundri school sanitation project. The media campaign also includes a promotional TV commercial that is currently airing on Dutch TV.

In March 2010, SCA’s Tempo brand donated 200,000 Euros to WaterAid for water and sanitation projects in Uganda.

Campaign web sites (in Dutch): Oxfam Novib ; SCA Hygiene Helpt ; Edet helpt ; Libresse helpt ; Tork helpt

See below a Oxfam Novib promotional video and the TV commercial for the school sanitation project in Mundri that is currently airing on Dutch TV.

Sudan: UN helps southern clean up disease-causing waste in the South

Some 16,000 volunteers will take to the streets of Juba, the capital of southern Sudan, next month in a United Nations programme to tackle health hazards caused by public dumping of waste in a rapidly growing metropolitan area that has endured repeated fatal outbreaks of cholera, water-borne diseases and malaria.

The project is part of a £20 million United Kingdom-funded project to improve the sustainable use of natural resources in Africa’s largest country, to be carried out by the UN Environment Programme (UNEP) over the next three years. UK Minister of State for International Development Gareth Thomas was visiting Juba to launch the segment that aims to establish long-term waste management capacity in Southern Sudan.

The clean-up, which will be replicated in the nine states of southern Sudan, will be coupled with a sustained awareness-raising campaign to encourage the citizens of Juba to adopt an environmentally friendly attitude towards the disposal of waste in the city.

UNEP’s country-wide programme seeks to help the people of Sudan, a country ravaged by several current and recent conflicts, to achieve sustainable peace, recovery and development by improving the management of natural resources.

The recently established UNEP office in Juba will also provide technical support to the Government to manage its forests and other valuable natural resources in a sustainable manner, and work to build the capacity of Government ministries to tackle environmental issues.

After a peace agreement in 2005 ended two decades of war between the Government in Khartoum, in the north, and southern Sudanese rebels, UNEP conducted a post-conflict environmental assessment, making 85 recommendations and outlining a detailed US$ 120-million action plan over three to five years.

Source: UN News Centre, 16 Oct 2009

Sudan, Khartoum: UNMIS supports sanitation improvement in leprosy colony

Leader of the community Abakr Abdallah, inspecting the newly constructed toilets. Photo: UNMIS

Leader of the community Abakr Abdallah, inspecting the newly constructed toilets. Photo: UNMIS

The lives of some 120 people affected by leprosy and other disease living in Mayo area in the outskirts of Khartoum are improved by the construction of 10 pit latrines that aim to provide much needed health and hygiene access. [On 16 June 2009] the United Nations Mission in Sudan (UNMIS) and partners from the Leprosy Mission of Sudan and the State Ministry of Health inaugurated the sanitation project, the first one of its kind, since the affected population moved first to the area.

The new latrines of $23,000 cost, were funded by UNMIS through its Civil Military Cooperation (CIMIC) unit, and were constructed in little over a month’s time. “Over the years things have substantially improved for those living in the area. Homes were built, a water pump was put in and now with the help of UNMIS, 10 toilets have been added to the improvements”, UNMIS Military Chief of Staff, Col. Oivind Christensen said during the opening ceremony.

Source: UNMIS, 16 Jun 2009

East Africa: Sanitation – ‘This Is the Way We Live’

In East Africa, not one country is on track to meet Millennium Development Goal Seven, which aims to reduce by half the number of people without access to clean drinking water and decent sanitation by 2015.

Despite governments in the region being signatories to several declarations on improving sanitation, many East African households still lack access to flush toilets or pit latrines. Open defecation is widespread, and ‘flying toilets’, where people defecate in plastic bags and throw them away at night are the rule rather than the exception in many informal settlements.

“This is the way we live. We do not have toilets, and no place to safely dispose of our waste,” said Nicholas Ambeyo [from Kibera, one of Africa’s largest slums, in Nairobi, Kenya]. “Because of this, and the lack of sufficient water, and the open sewers that run through our houses, we are at a risk of contracting diseases.”

[…] Toilet coverage in Kenya is still low, with latrines available to less than 50 percent of the population, according to James Gesami, the country’s assistant minister for Public Health and Sanitation.

[…] “Sanitation is a newly thought-out issue and we have not given adequate resources to that sector, but things are changing now,” Gesami told IPS. Government statistics show that budgetary allocation to sanitation in Kenya currently stands at 13 million dollars per year, too little for the country to reach the sanitation MDG. It is estimated that the country will require about 40 million dollars per year if is to achieve the MDG by the set deadline of 2015.

[…] Sudan is [also] far from achieving the sanitation MDG, especially in war-affected areas. Access to improved sanitation in Southern Sudan is at 6.4 percent, way below the 2015 target of 53 percent. [I]n the north [it] stands at 39.9 percent, edging closer to the 2015 target of 67 percent. Minimal budgetary allocations for sanitation have made it difficult for the government to provide the majority of poor citizens with basic toilet and latrine facilities. This has been blamed for the widespread outbreaks of diarrhoeal ailments, according to Elobeid Mohammed, coordinator of Sudan National Discourse, a water and sanitation non-governmental body.

“Diarrhoea, especially among children is common during autumn because of the rains and blocked sewers. These are diseases that can be prevented by ensuring access to toilets and hygiene. By doing this, the government can save money and pump it to other crucial sectors of development,” Mohammed told IPS.

Charles Hakizimana, chairman of the African Ministers’ Council on Water, says efforts to improve latrine coverage have been jeopardised by extreme poverty, illustrating the situation with an example from Burundi.

“There are cases where development agencies have provided material to communities to dig latrines, but [beneficiaries] sell them and continue defecating in the bush. Often times the people have said: “give us food first, there is no need to construct pit latrines when we do not have anything to put in them,”” Hakizimana, said.

In addition, there are social obstacles to providing sanitation to all. For instance, in several parts of East Africa, it is taboo for fathers-in-law to share a latrine with his daughters-in-law or mothers-in-law to share with sons-in-law. […] Constructing separate latrines for different family members is far too costly.

Source: Joyce Mulama, IPS, 19 Dec 2008

Sudan: eye disease rampant in the south – study

A large number of people living in Ayod County, Jonglei State, Southern Sudan, are suffering from severe trachoma […] at least one person with clinical signs of trachoma was found in nearly every household, and one in three households had a person with severe blinding trachoma,” [according to a recent study], The Burden of Trachoma in Ayod County of Southern Sudan.

A total of 2,335 people from 392 households, of whom 1,107 were older than 14, were examined for trachoma by researchers from the Carter Center and the University of Cambridge.

Trachoma [occurs] especially where there are shortages of water, numerous flies, and crowded living conditions. […] Poor hygiene practices, such as improper disposal of solid waste and inadequate face cleaning, contribute to its spread.

Active trachoma in Ayod was among the highest reported globally. The study recommended urgent and sustained surgical intervention, the mass distribution of antibiotics, as well as the adoption of the practice of face washing and safe disposal of human waste. There was also a need for increased access to improved water sources.

Only 4.4 percent of the population in the survey area had a latrine, while 23.2 percent of individual caregivers reported never washing their children’s faces.

Source: IRIN, 24 Sep 2008

Related web sites: WHO – Trachoma ; International Trachoma Initiative

Sudan: People with HIV demand safe drinking water

For years, Lole Laila Lole, chairperson of an association for people living with HIV/AIDS in southern Sudan, had to drink, cook with, and bathe in the dirty, contaminated water he fetched from the River Nile. “There was no other way,” he told IRIN/PlusNews.

Due to their weakened immune systems, people living with HIV are particularly susceptible to infections and diseases that can be present in untreated water. But after testing positive [in Khartoum], Lole was forced to return to the virtually non-existent water system of Juba, the southern capital, which had been at war for close to two decades.

The conflict ended in 2005, but government leaders in the south say they lack adequate resources to redevelop the war-ravaged region and deliver services such as providing safe water.

Since the end of the war, treatment tablets have become available in the shops, and HIV-positive people who can afford them are now able to protect themselves from the outbreaks of cholera and other diarrhoeal diseases.

This year, Population Services International (PSI), with funding from the US Centres for Disease Control, began including water treatment tablets [Water Guard] in the basic care packets they distribute to people with HIV every three months. The decision to include Water Guard in PSI’s care packets was partly in response to pressure from people living with HIV.

Women in Sudan also face very high maternal health risks. The risks are significantly higher for HIV-positive mothers and babies, particularly if they are unable to access safe drinking water.

Read more: IRIN/PlusNews, 12 May 2008

Sudan: Water, water everywhere – but it’s not fit to drink

Malakal, on the banks of the world’s longest river in Sudan’s Upper Nile State, should have enough water to quench thirst and clean itself; instead the town was grappling with serious challenges as it marked the international week of sanitation in March. With the onset of the rainy season, aid workers worry that cholera could become a significant danger.

The situation is compounded by a serious shortage of toilet facilities. A survey by the NGO Relief International in 2007 found that 80 percent of the residents had no access to latrines or any other toilet facilities. A 2007 household survey in Sudan, conducted by UNICEF, found that only 7.5 percent of the population in Upper Nile practised improved sanitation.

But where latrines have been provided a change had been noticed. A study of be havioural change by the NGO Solidarités in El Luakat and El Mattar suburbs of Malakal found that latrine use went up from 16 percent in 2007 to 26 percent with an increase in facilities from 5 to 35 percent.

Sanitation week, from 17 to 20 March, was intended to scale up hygiene and health information across Upper Nile and in Malakal town. School children were taught songs on hygiene and some parts of the town were cleaned, but aid workers say very little was achieved.

Read more: IRIN, 30 Apr 2008