Tag Archives: Sustainability

DFID should ensure sustainability of its WASH programmes – independent review

Richard Gledhill  ICAI

Richard Gledhill

By Richard Gledhill, ICAI lead commissioner for WASH review

62.9 million people – almost the population of the UK – that’s how many people in developing countries DFID claimed to have reached with WASH interventions between 2011 and 2015.

It’s an impressive figure. And – in our first ever ‘impact review’ – it’s a figure the Independent Commission for Aid Impact found to be based on credible evidence.

We assessed the results claim made by DFID about WASH, testing the evidence and visiting projects to see the results for ourselves. We  concluded that the claim was credible – calculated using appropriate methods and conservative assumptions.

But what does reaching 62.9 million people really mean? Have lives been transformed? And have the results been sustainable?

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Accelerating and sustaining behaviour change: New handbook launched at GSF learning event

This week, the Global Sanitation Fund (GSF) and the GSF-funded ‘Fonds d’Appui pour l’Assainissement’ (FAA) in Madagascar launched a new handbook on accelerating and sustaining the end of open defecation.

The handbook was launched during the GSF Learning Event in Antananarivo, Madagascar, inaugurated by Madagascar’s Minister of Water Sanitation and Hygiene, Roland Ravatomanga.

A community celebrating the creation of their ‘model latrine’ for others to replicate during a FUM session in Madagascar. Credit: WSSCC

A community celebrating the creation of their ‘model latrine’ for others to replicate during a FUM session in Madagascar. Credit: WSSCC

The ‘Follow-up MANDONA’ (FUM) handbook is a field guide for practitioners of Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) – an empowering approach for improving sanitation and hygiene through collective behaviour change, rather than external subsidies or prescription. FUM aims to systematically engage communities after they have been initially ‘triggered’ and committed to ending open defecation.

‘Mandona’ is a Malagasy word which means ‘to push’. FUM brings the entire community together for a self-analysis of their sanitation situation, which then helps them immediately create models that prevent the ingestion of faeces. The approach harnesses the power of Natural Leaders to replicate these models across the community, which includes helping those that are least able, in order to advance to ODF status. By focusing on sustainable behaviour change, FUM is also a useful tool for addressing issues surrounding ‘slippage’, which relates to returning to previous unhygienic behaviours.

FUM was developed and refined by MIARINTSOA NGO, a sub-grantee of the FAA programme. Given the success of FUM in Madagascar and elsewhere, the GSF and FAA created the FUM handbook to provide a practical guide for how CLTS practitioners can implement the approach in their own contexts.

Download ‘Follow-up MANDONA: A field guide for accelerating and sustaining open defecation free communities’ (English/French)

The weeklong global event where the handbook was launched brings together implementing partners, WASH experts, and high-level government representatives from GSF-supported programmes. These actors are exchanging ideas and sharing best practices for achieving improved sanitation and hygiene behaviour at scale.

During the launch, WSSCC Executive Director Chris Williams highlighted how FUM is engraining the sustainability of sanitation and hygiene behaviour change in Madagascar and beyond. “Once a village, or an entire commune, has reached ODF status, the story isn’t over. In fact, the work continues. This important publication documents the innovations that Madagascar has put together to systematically follow-up with villages. FUM aims to ensure that the change in attitudes and creation of convictions that my ‘sanitation problem is your sanitation problem’ – ‘or my shit is your shit’ – is dealt with as a collective community effort.”

WSSCC Executive Director holds up the Follow-up MANDONA handbook at GSF Learning Event opening ceremony. Credit: WSSCC/Okechukwu Umelo

WSSCC Executive Director holds up the Follow-up MANDONA handbook at GSF Learning Event opening ceremony. Credit: WSSCC/Okechukwu Umelo

FUM has become one of FAA’s most important tools for empowering over 1.6 million people to live in open defecation free environments on their own terms. Due to its success in Madagascar, FUM has recently become a core strategy for national sanitation and hygiene programmes in Uganda, Nigeria, Benin, and Togo.

Community members in Nigeria agreeing to trigger their neighbours and help those who don’t have the means to build their own latrine. Credit: WSSCC

Community members in Nigeria agreeing to trigger their neighbours and help those who don’t have the means to build their own latrine. Credit: WSSCC

Kamal Kar, the Chairman of the CLTS Foundation, which has extensively supported the FAA programme to develop their CLTS approach, emphasized the importance of the handbook in sharing proven approaches to practitioners around the world: “I am glad that the Malagasy NGO, MIARINTSOA, with the help of the FAA programme, WSSCC and the GSF, has systematically documented their experience of post-triggering follow-up from their implementation of CLTS over the last 4-5 years. Publication of this Follow-up MANDONA handbook is indeed a step forward towards country-wide scaling up of good practice of CLTS in Madagascar and beyond.”

Eugène-De-Ligori-Rasamoelina,-Executive-Director-of-MIARINTSOA-NGO,-which-developed-and-refined-Follow-up-MANDONA---WSSCC

Eugène De Ligori Rasamoelina, Executive Director of MIARINTSOA NGO, which developed and refined Follow-up MANDONA. Credit: WSSCC

“I must say that the emergence of thousands of ODF villages in Madagascar, starting with my multiple support visits to the country since 2010 to strengthen the approach, is a brilliant example of quality CLTS implementation with its central philosophy of local empowerment. I believe that this handbook will be useful in understanding and ensuring post-triggering follow-up in CLTS for sustained behaviour change.”

Find out more about the Global Sanitation Fund on the WSSCC website.

Do donor restrictions affect sustainability of water and sanitation interventions? Results from a Pilot Survey

Do donor restrictions affect sustainability of water and sanitation interventions? Results from a Pilot Survey, 2015. Improve International.

During August-September 2015, Improve International prepared and distributed a survey via Survey Monkey. Out of 14 questions, five allowed open-ended responses, six were multiple-choice and three were yes/no. Three multiple-choice questions allowed for more than one response and seven questions contained comments sections.

The survey was intended for international development organizations (for-profit or not-for profit), civic groups, universities, volunteer groups, or community-based organizations that raise funds from US-based donors to implement or fund water, sanitation, and hygiene interventions.

Study examines sustainability of CLTS programmes in Africa

Plan-ODF-sustainability-coverDespite the widespread implementation of Community Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) programs and many claims of success, there has been very little systematic investigation into their sustainability.  A new study, which aims to change that, is creating a stir in the WASH sector.

A study commissioned by Plan International on the sustainability of CLTS programs in Africa revealed that 87% of the households still had a functioning latrine. This would indicate a remarkably low rate of reversion (13%) to open defecation (OD) or “slippage”.

However, if the criteria used to originally award open defecation free (ODF) status to villages are used, then the overall slippage rate increased dramatically to  92%. These criteria are:

  • A functioning latrine with a superstructure
  • A means of keeping flies from the pit (either water seal or lid)
  • Absence of excreta in the vicinity of the house
  • Hand washing facilities with water and soap or soap-substitute such as ash
  • Evidence that the latrine and hand washing facilities were being used

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Akvopedia Sustainability Portal launched

Akvopedia Icon

Akvopedia has launched a new water and sanitation portal on sustainability. Developed by Akvo in collaboration with IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre, the portal provides simple outlines of sustainability frameworks, such as the IRC’s Triple-S framework, as well as the FIETS approach, which was developed by the Dutch WASH Alliance and takes into account five key areas of sustainability – financial, institutional, environmental, technical and social. These key areas have been chosen as the five pillars of the portal’s main page.

Web sitewww.akvopedia.org/wiki/Sustainability_Portal

Mapping sustainability assessment tools to support sustainable water and sanitation service delivery

Mapping sustainability assessment tools to support sustainable water and sanitation service delivery, 2013.

Authors: Julia Boulenouar, Ryan Schweitzer and Harold Lockwood. Water Services That Last.  water_services

This paper reviews five different sustainability assessment tools that are currently in use for programme monitoring of WASH interventions. The selected tools all have a developed framework that has each been pilot tested and produces an objective and quantifiable output (e.g., final score or percentage) that can be used to trigger improvements to programme design or take remedial actions. The review team found a larger number of tools in circulation, but did not include those limited to one particular technology or to the organisational aspects of sustainability.

USAID-Rotary International – WASH Sustainability Index Tool

International H2O Collaboration

The USAID-Rotary International H2O Collaboration was launched in March 2009, and the first round of pilot projects were finalized in 2012 in the Dominican Republic, Ghana, and the Philippines. The central goal of this collaboration between Rotary International and USAID is to support water, sanitation, and hygiene initiatives that will have lasting impacts in target communities.The partnership between Rotary International and USAID is an official Global Development Alliance (GDA), which is an innovative public-private alliance model developed and used by USAID for improving social and economic conditions in developing countries. WashSustainabilityIndex-6

One outcome of the Alliance is the publication of theSustainability Index Tool documents which are listed below:

  • Sustainability Index of WASH Interventions: Global Findings and Lessons Learned. The Sustainability Index Tool, focuses on four critical areas that are known to be importance to the long-term sustainability of WASH interventions: institutional, management, financial, and technical factors. (Full text|pdf-1.27MB)
  • Dominican Republic: Sustainability Index of WASH Activities(Full text|pdf-2.51MB)
  • Ghana: Sustainability Index of WASH Activities & Partnership Evaluation(Full text|pdf-1.82MB)
  • Philippines: Sustainability Index of WASH Activities & Alliance Evaluation(Full text|pdf-1.59MB)