Tag Archives: Tanzania

Characteristics of latrines in central Tanzania and their relation to fly catches.

Characteristics of latrines in central Tanzania and their relation to fly catches. PLoS One. 2013 Jul 18;8(7).

Irish S, Aiemjoy K, Torondel B, Abdelahi F, Ensink JH.

The disposal of human excreta in latrines is an important step in reducing the transmission of diarrhoeal diseases. However, in latrines, flies can access the latrine contents and serve as a mechanical transmitter of diarrhoeal pathogens. Furthermore, the latrine contents can be used as a breeding site for flies, which may further contribute to disease transmission. Latrines do not all produce flies, and there are some which produce only a few, while others can produce thousands. In order to understand the role of the latrine in determining this productivity, a pilot study was conducted, in which fifty latrines were observed in and around Ifakara, Tanzania.

Drop-hole modification and trap placement

Drop-hole modification and trap placement

The characteristics of the latrine superstructure, use of the latrine, and chemical characteristics of pit latrine contents were compared to the numbers of flies collected in an exit trap placed over the drop hole in the latrine. Absence of a roof was found to have a significant positive association (t=3.17, p=0.003) with the total number of flies collected, and temporary superstructures, particularly as opposed to brick superstructures (z=4.26, p<0.001), and increased total solids in pit latrines (z=2.57, p=0.01) were significantly associated with increased numbers of blowflies leaving the latrine.

The number of larvae per gram was significantly associated with the village from which samples were taken, with the largest difference between two villages outside Ifakara (z=2.12, p=0.03). The effect of latrine superstructure (roof, walls) on fly production may indicate that improvements in latrine construction could result in decreases in fly populations in areas where they transmit diarrhoeal pathogens.

Evaluating the potential of microfinance for sanitation in Tanzania

Evaluating the potential of microfinance for sanitation in Tanzania, 2013.

Sophie Trémolet, George Muruka. SHARE.

The objectives of the case study are to investigate how household financing for sanitation can be mobilised via microfinance institutions, community banks and mass market commercial banks in order to accelerate sustainable access to sanitation facilities and/or services. tanzania-share

The research conducted in Tanzania is exploratory in nature. It seeks to map out the existing provision of microfinance for sanitation, to identify where opportunities for future market development lie and to identify how the development of such a market could be fostered (through the targeted use of public funds or regulatory changes for example). The case  study in Tanzania will feed into broader research about how donors can channel financing
for water and sanitation to small-scale actors.

Leveraging Partnerships to Achieve Total Sanitation in East Africa

A 2010 analysis showed that most East African countries have national sanitation policies and plans in place, but that the actual programs often lack coordination. To meet the Millennium Development Goals for sanitation, such programs must combine their efforts to achieve behavior-change outcomes and focus on commonalities, which include an emphasis on learning, demand creation, and capacity building.

These key understandings are among several discussed in a new Water and Sanitation Program (WSP) Learning Note, Partnering on the Road Towards Achieving Total Sanitation in East Africa. The report highlights the objectives and initial outcomes of a learning exchange held in Tanzania, which focused on how governments and agencies can work effectively as partners to achieve sustained sanitation scale up.

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WSP – Introductory Guide to Sanitation Marketing and Online Toolkit

Introductory Guide to Sanitation Marketing, 2011.
Print and Online Toolkit, by Jacqueline Devine and Craig Kullmann, Water and Sanitation Program.
Download Full-text (pdf) and view Online Toolkit

Sanitation marketing is an emerging field with a relatively small group of practitioners who are learning by doing. With an Introductory Guide to Sanitation Marketing and a companion online toolkit the Water and Sanitation Program (WSP) seeks to contribute to the field by sharing practical guidance on the design, implementation, and monitoring of rural sanitation marketing programs at scale in India, Indonesia, and Tanzania, plus additional projects implemented in Cambodia and Peru.

The online toolkit includes narrated overviews, videos, and downloadable documents including research reports, sample questionnaires, and more.

Sanitation marketing, together with Community-led Total Sanitation (CLTS) and behaviour change are the three core components WSP’s approach to scaling up rural sanitation, which also includes strengthening the enabling environment.

New paper on efficacy of alcohol-based hand sanitizers (ABHS) in field conditions

Pickering, A.J., Davis, J. and Boehm, A.B. (2011). Efficacy of alcohol-based hand sanitizer on hands soiled with dirt and cooking oil. Journal of water and health ; vol. 9, no. 3 ; p. 429–433. doi:10.2166/wh.2011.138 (pay per view)

Abstract

Handwashing education and promotion are well established as effective strategies to reduce diarrhea and respiratory illness in countries around the world. However, access to reliable water supplies has been identified as an important barrier to regular handwashing in low-income countries. Alcohol-based hand sanitizer (ABHS) is an effective hand hygiene method that does not require water, but its use is not currently recommended when hands are visibly soiled. This study evaluated the efficacy of ABHS on volunteers’ hands artificially contaminated with Escherichia coli in the presence of dirt (soil from Tanzania) and cooking oil. ABHS reduced levels of E. coli by a mean of 2.33 log colony forming units (CFU) per clean hand, 2.32 log CFU per dirt-covered hand, and 2.13 log CFU per oil-coated hand. No significant difference in efficacy was detected between hands that were clean versus dirty or oily. ABHS may be an appropriate hand hygiene method for hands that are moderately soiled, and an attractive option for field settings in which access to water and soap is limited.

Contact: Amy Janel Pickering, Emmet Interdisciplinary Program in Environment and Resources, School of Earth Sciences, Stanford University, amyjanel@stanford.edu

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BBC World – WaterAid’s Gulper in action in Tanzania

4 August 2011 - The Gulper, WaterAid’s innovative machine for hygienically emptying pit latrines, will feature in a new BBC World documentary series on Saturday 6 August at 10.10 and 20.10 GMT.

The film, which has been made by independent production company Rockhopper, will appear on The Health Show, a groundbreaking new series covering major health stories from around the world.

Rachel Pilkington, WaterAid’s Media Officer, who accompanied the film crew on the trip, said: “We were delighted that The Gulper was chosen for this documentary series as it is really helping to reduce the spread of disease in urban settlements in Tanzania.

“Being featured on BBC World provides WaterAid with the valuable opportunity to spread awareness of its sanitation work among new and varied audiences across the globe.”

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Malawi/Tanzania : US partnership to bring clean water to 30 schools

The Water and Sanitation Rotarian Action Group (WASRAG) announced a partnership to bring 5 million gallons [19 million litres] of clean water, along with sanitation and hygiene education, to 30 schools in Malawi and Tanzania during its fourth World Water Summit on 20 May 2011. The other members of the partnership are Africare, Procter and Gamble, and H2O for Life.

Africare will implement the project, Procter and Gamble will provide PUR water purification packets through its Children’s Safe Drinking Water Program, and H2O for Life will connect schoolchildren in North America with those in Malawi and Tanzania to educate them about the water crisis. Rotary clubs and districts will donate to the project and use their community connections to help find schools to participate.

WASRAG web logo

WASRAG estimates that the water treatment will cost US$ 20,000 per school. Rotary clubs and districts will provide about a sixth of the funding.

The group announced several other partnerships during its summit, including an alliance with Chevron to develop a technology demonstration centre in Niger and an agreement with car wash owners in Atlanta, Georgia, who plan to contribute a portion of the cost of every car wash to water projects. WASRAG is also working with Jamie Bartram, director of the Water Institute at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, to develop monitoring protocols for its projects.

Related web sites:

Source: Diana Schoberg, Rotary International News, 22 May 2011

Tanzania – Local entrepreneur goes for mass production of biogas from cow-dung

A Tanzanian entrepreneur, Andembwisye Mwakatundu, has come up with an innovative plan to turn hundreds of tons of cow-dung otherwise thrown away by ranches and individuals throughout the country to produce biogas. The sight of men on bicycles carrying firewood and charcoal is a common one along Dar es Salaam’s Nyerere Road towards Kisarawe in Coast Region and throughout Tanzania: It is the human face of deforestation.

The main source of fuel for preparing food, lighting, and keeping their homes warm are standing trees and shrubs, with more than 39 million, or 80 per cent, of Tanzania’s population relying for household cooking fuel alone on firewood and charcoal. Population growth matched with a dwindling supply of fuelwood and the rising cost of kerosene, has resulted in the country’s forest cover being reduced over the last 40 years from 6.3 hectares per capita in 1961 to around .08 hectares in 2009, leaving behind miles of barren land incapable of absorbing water or supporting plant life of agriculture.

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Sewage cycle to clean life in slums

Pedal power may hold the answer to cheap and efficient sewage removal in some of the world’s poorest slums — if the work of a Cambridge University researcher can be taken into large-scale production.

M Phil graduate Nate Sharpe is planning to take his ‘People Powered Poo Pump‘ to the slums of the Tanzanian capital, Dar es Salaam.

Roughly 80 per cent of Dar es Salaam’s four million residents live in slum conditions.

His trials, if successful, could revolutionise the removal of faecal sludge from pit latrines common to slums in Africa, Asia and other parts of the developing world and lead to vast health benefits, a university release said.

Sharpe has designed a prototype bicycle-powered vacuum pump/tank system which works by putting the end of a hose into a pit latrine and cycling in place for a few minutes on a bike stand.

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Sanitation costs and financing – presentations at IRC’s 2010 Symposium

The following papers on sanitation costs and financing were presented at the IRC Symposium 2010, ‘Pumps, Pipes and Promises: Costs, Finances and Accountability for Sustainable WASH Services’, held in The Hague from 16-18 November.

The economics of sanitation initiatives (ESI) for sanitation decision making in Southeast Asia. Author: Guy Hutton

This presentation discusses cost data from 5 Southeast Asian countries in various forms (by technology, by site/project, by hardware/software, by financing source, by timing, and under different infrastructure capacity use levels) to aid decision makers in intervention selection and to draw more general lessons about sanitation financing, efficiency and sustainability. Cost data were triangulated from household surveys, project or provider documents and local market surveys to estimate investment and annualized life cycle costs per household and per individual.

Full paper

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