Tag Archives: total sanitation campaigns

Policy Lessons from Implementing India’s Total Sanitation Campaign

Policy Lessons from Implementing India’s Total Sanitation Campaign, 2012.

Dean Spears, Princeton University

Ending widespread open defecation and pursuing feasible methods of safe excreta disposal must be top policy priorities for India. This paper draws policy lessons from the first ten years of latrine construction under India’s Total Sanitation Campaign (TSC), a flagship program of the Indian government. So far, the TSC has been able to improve average health and human capital among Indian children where it has been implemented, but sanitation coverage remains substantially incomplete.

Indeed, the first ten years of the TSC will have, on average, prevented an infant death for a few thousand dollars, a comparatively very inexpensive average cost. This initial success is in part due to the Clean Village Prize or Nirmal Gram Puraskar (NGP), an incentive for village governments. Heterogeneity in the intensity and effectiveness of TSC implementation suggests that the additional benefits of extending effective TSC implementation to the many remaining Indian children would probably substantially exceed the additional costs. Therefore, as the TSC becomes the Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan, India should not miss the opportunity to invest in successful principles of total sanitation: quality data, effective monitoring, and motivational ex post incentives.


India, Karnataka: 3.3 million toilets in next two years

The State government will construct 33 lakh (3.3. million) toilets in the next two years, announced Rural Development and Panchayat Raj Minister Jagadish Shettar on 28 January 2010.

The drive will be taken up in villages under the “Sampoorna Svachatha Andolan” (Total Sanitation Campaign) with the help of NGOs and Stree Shakti Groups, Shettar said while participating in the “Nirmala Gram” award function at Raj Bhavan in Bangalore. It is a national award accorded to gram panchayats (village councils) for achieving total sanitation. The State government had recommended as many as 500 gram panchayats to the Centre for the award, however, only 245 were short-listed by the Union government, the minister said.

Shettar said he would discuss with the Chief Minister on the possibility of providing State awards to the remaining gram panchayats.

Bangalore rural had the maximum number of gram panchayats in the award list (40), Gulbarga and Raichur drew a blank. Governor H R Bhardwaj was also present at the award distribution ceremony.

The function was jointly organised by the Rural Department and Panchayat Raj Department and the Karnataka Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Agency.

Source: DHNS, Deccan Herald, 28 Jan 2010

India – Nagaland aims for total sanitation by 2012

Kohima | February 23 : Nagaland is apparently heading for hygienic and cleaner living, with a series of programmes being undertaken by the Communication & Capacity Development unit of PHED to intensify the “total sanitation campaign.” It is also to create wide awareness amongst communities across the state to maintain proper sanitation. More recently, the government proposed to achieve total sanitation through the total sanitation campaign in keeping with the government of India’s target of ‘Clean Villages by Year 2012.’

The total sanitation campaign is a comprehensive programme to ensure sanitation facilities in rural areas with the broader goal of eradicating the practice of open defecation. As part of total sanitation campaign the Communication & Capacity Development unit organized a one-day training for resource persons for women bodies here today at the Red Cross complex. There, Minister for PHED Dr Ngangshi K. Ao called for involvement of each and every individual in making Nagaland a sanitized state.

The minister was hopeful that one day the entire state would become sanitized and emerge a healthier society. He said the PHE department alone cannot do much to achieve the target of total sanitation unless the masses involve too. Dr. Ao expressed his appreciation to the women-folk for their commitment and sincerity in all sectors for the growth of the state. He termed the training programme beneficial and hoped that the resource persons would motivate the community. The minister also stressed on the importance of safe drinking water and sanitation and urged the people to use water economically. Water sources are showing a decrease, he reminded.

Highlighting the objective of the training, Executive Director of CCDU Kevisekho Kruse said that sanitation is a serious agenda. Without a proper sanitation system, tourism cannot flourish, he said. Kruse called for collective efforts to make villages healthy. The Government of India targets that by 2012 every household would own toilet facilities. Chairing the inaugural function, J Walter Longchar, SE of PHED said the training programme has been designed to teach the community to practice hygienic habits.

Source – Morung Express

Pakistan – Launch of Total Sanitation Campaign

Plan to launch ‘Saaf Suthra Pakistan Programme’

Ministry of Environment along with its partners is working on a comprehensive plan to launch ‘Saaf Suthra (clean) Pakistan Programme’ that envisages total sanitation all across the country to achieve the Millennium Development Goals targets.

Sources at the ministry told APP that allocations would be made for the programme over the next five years to achieve the total sanitation target.

“The ‘Saaf Suthra Pakistan Programme’ will have a phased approach for creating demand through communication and capacity development units in each province,” sources said.

“The programme will also include surveys and mapping for component sharing in selective TMAs and setting up of provincial social mobilisation units to scale up community and school led approaches,” sources added.

Experts at the two-day Pakistan Conference on Sanitation (PACOSAN) a couple of days back had also recommended multiple approaches to focus on the ‘Clean Pakistan Programme’.

It was also proposed during the conference that Rs12.5 billion would be allocated to execute the programme over the next five years, as the environment minister had set a target of total sanitation for all by 2015.

Sources also mentioned that setting up of ‘Rural Sanitation Marts’ in selected tehsils, provision of revolving funds and micro-finance, special consideration for the poorest of the poor, and coverage enhancement of public toilets are other features of the programme.

NGOs would be involved to develop, test, document, and replicate successful models for total sanitation, and solid and liquid waste management, the sources added.

Mentioning the guiding principles of the National Sanitation Action Plan, sources said that open defecation would be unacceptable and there should be an inclusive participatory development.

The total sanitation concept would be adapted with improved sanitation provided to all and focus would be on productive infrastructure only, ensuring that no one is exposed to the risks of unconfined ‘human excreta’ and solid waste. Progress would be accelerated to achieve health benefits and coordinate efforts within a framework of mutual accountability.

Sources also mentioned to improve governance, reward collective outcomes, incentives for producing performance information and support IEC for collective behavioural change.

See also: Call for Total Sanitation in Pakistan by 2015, WSSCC

Source – The News, Pakistan

India Sanitation Portal launched

Arghyam and the WASH Institute have launched the India Sanitation Portal, as a sister web site of the India Water Portal. The new Portal is a collaborative effort with content initially provided by Arghyam, Plan International, Stockholm Environmental Institute, UNICEF, WASH Institute, WaterAid, Water and Sanitation Program, Water for People, and Wherever the Need.

An important part of the Portal is the section on GIS applications and maps related to the performance of Total Sanitation Campaign and Nirmal Gram Puraskar, the flagship government programs related to rural sanitation. These applications were created through data obtained courtesy of the Department of Drinking Water Supply, Government of India.

Other sections are a searchable database of organisations and a Knowledge & Resources section with full text case studies, course materials, videos, research papers and policy documents.

India, Sikkim: first state to achieve 100% sanitation

Sikkim, the second smallest state of India, was recently declared a ‘Nirmal State’ for being completely free of open defecation. It was honoured with a gold medal by Indian President Pratibha Patil for setting an example for others states to follow.

“I congratulate Sikkim for becoming a state with 100% sanitation facilities and I hope that other states will follow suit,” said Patil while handing over the medal to the state’s Chief Minister Pavan Chamling at a function in Pune on December 8, 2008.

[Even though it is India’s least populous state], Sikkim’s achievement is being hailed as a major step forward in a country [where] over half-a-billion Indians do not have a toilet. Indeed, the country needs to build 78 new toilets every minute over the next four years to meet the government’s ambitious sanitation target under the Nirmal Gram Yojana or Total Sanitation Campaign .

[…] Nirmal Gram Puraskars (awards), launched in 2002, have received a tremendous response from villages. This year, Maharashtra topped the list by bagging the award for 4,302 gram panchayats in the state. Other states to receive maximum incentives for ridding villages of open defecation are Kerala, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu.

2008 has been declared International Year of Sanitation, with the goal of raising awareness and accelerating progress towards the Millennium Development Goal of reducing by half the proportion of 2.6 billion people without access to basic sanitation, by 2015.

Despite the huge numbers, Unicef’s regional adviser on water and sanitation in South Asia, Bill Fellows, said [that achieving the Millennium Development Goal for sanitation] was possible. “There has been an exponential increase (in the number of toilets built) in the past few years and if that rate of increase continues, we’ll meet the target,” he said.

SourceInfoChange, 10 Dec 2008

India, West Bengal: village opens new chapter in sanitation

Five years ago it was difficult to enter or walk past the narrow by-lanes of Hadipur Jhikra-I Gram Panchayat of Deganga block in the North 24 Parganas district of West Bengal because of overbearing stench, dirt and flies. Today the scene is different. The village panchayat has overcome the challenge of open defecation. Every house in this pre-dominantly Muslim hamlet with 2,751 households has a toilet, as does the anganwadi center, school and the primary health sub-centre.

Villagers now say with a sense of pride that they have applied for the Nirmal Gram Puraskar award given by the Central Government under its Total Sanitation Campaign for villages that achieve full sanitation coverage. But this journey from 2001 to now was not easy, recalls Mashqura Begum who was the driving force behind this movement.


“I went from house to house collecting Rs 420 as beneficiaries contribution (Rs 210 for those living below the poverty line). Some women gave and others even complained that their husbands beat them on learning that money was being given for constructing a toilet.”

Read more: Aarti Dhar, The Hindu, 06 Oct 2008 [also available on India Environmental Portal]