Innovative communal sanitation models for the urban poor: Lessons from Uganda, 2014.
Authors: Greg Bachmayer, Noah Shermbrucker. SHARE.
This paper describes the construction and management processes related to two toilet blocks in Uganda, one in Jinja and one in Kampala. Designs, financial models and insights into the process and challenges faced are presented and reflected on. Discussions about scaling up sanitation provision through these models are also tabled. To strengthen their planning processes, the Ugandan federation sought to draw on other community driven processes in India and Malawi. With divergent contexts, especially in terms of density, lessons were adapted to local conditions.
Through unpacking these experiences the paper draws attention to a number of key points. Firstly it argues that organised communities have the potential to develop functional and sustainable systems for the planning, construction and management of communal toilet blocks. Secondly, how shared learning, practical experience and exchanges driven by communities assisted in refining the sanitation systems and technologies piloted and thirdly the value, especially in terms of scale and leverage of including City Authorities in the provision of communal sanitation. A fourth key point, interwoven across discussions, relates to the financial planning, costing and affordability of the sanitation options piloted. Understanding the seed capital investments needed and various options for cost recovery is vital in assessing the affordability and scalability of pilots.
The paper mixes one of the co-author’s reflections (written in first person) with descriptions and analysis of the sanitation projects supported. This narrative method is deployed to emphasise the collegiate manner in which learning takes place across a country-spanning network of urban poor communities.
More funding for a local government-led approach introduced in 2008 by SNV and IRC to scale up sanitation from community to district level.
The UK’s Department for International Development (DFID) has awarded SNV Netherlands Development Organisation a €28 million (US$ 32 million) service contract to fund the Sustainable Sanitation & Hygiene for All (SSH4A) Results Programme. Introduced by SNV and IRC in 2008 in Nepal, Bhutan, Cambodia, Viet Nam and Laos, SSH4A is a comprehensive, local government-led approach to scale up sanitation from community to district level.
With funding from the DFID Results Fund, the SSH4A Results Programme will provide improved sanitation to more than 2 million people in nine countries: Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Mozambique, Nepal, South Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda and Zambia. The programme will also reach out to over 2.7 million people with hygiene promotion, make 1,200 communities Open Defecation Free (ODF), ensure that 400,000 people practice hand washing with soap at critical times, assist the preparation of district sanitation plans and improve local governments’ capacity for steering improved sanitation.
SSH4A programmes have been implemented with rural communities in 15 countries across Asia and Africa. In Asia, more than 2.2 million rural people have been reached, of whom 700,000 received improved sanitation.
Source: SNV, 28 Apr 2014
Posted in Africa, Funding, Hygiene Promotion, Sanitary Facilities, South Asia
Tagged DFID, Ethiopia, Ghana, IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre, Kenya, Mozambique, Nepal, SNV, South Sudan, SSH4A, Sustainable Sanitation and Hygiene for All programme, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia
Despite the widespread implementation of Community Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) programs and many claims of success, there has been very little systematic investigation into their sustainability. A new study, which aims to change that, is creating a stir in the WASH sector.
A study commissioned by Plan International on the sustainability of CLTS programs in Africa revealed that 87% of the households still had a functioning latrine. This would indicate a remarkably low rate of reversion (13%) to open defecation (OD) or “slippage”.
However, if the criteria used to originally award open defecation free (ODF) status to villages are used, then the overall slippage rate increased dramatically to 92%. These criteria are:
- A functioning latrine with a superstructure
- A means of keeping flies from the pit (either water seal or lid)
- Absence of excreta in the vicinity of the house
- Hand washing facilities with water and soap or soap-substitute such as ash
- Evidence that the latrine and hand washing facilities were being used
Posted in Africa, Hygiene Promotion, Publications, Research, Sanitary Facilities
Tagged Community-Led Total Sanitation, Ethiopia, handwashing, Kenya, Plan International, Sierra Leone, slippage, Sustainability, Uganda
. Summary of sanitation lending and product delivery models. Water for People
Microfinance allows middle- and lower-income households to invest in desirable sanitation products, so that public funding can be freed up to reach the poorest, according to Water for People (WfP). In a new report , WfP reviews their experiences in piloting various lending models in seven countries: Bolivia, Guatemala, India, Malawi, Peru, Rwanda and Uganda.
The report provides lessons and recommendations for donors wishing to engage in sanitation microfinancing. The four key recommendations are:
- Think like a business
- Support lending institutions based on the microfinance climate and capacity needs
- Build an autonomous sanitation microfinance market
- Track progress and lessons
The report is part of WfP’s Sanitation as a Business (SaaB) program, funded by a Gates Foundation grant.
Read the full report
 Chatterley, C. et al, 2013. Microfinance as a potential catalyst for improved sanitation : a synthesis of Water For People’s sanitation lending experiences in seven countries. Denver, CO,USA: Water For People. Available at: <http://www.waterforpeople.org/assets/files/sanitation-microfinance.pdf>
Source: Christie Chatterley et al., Microfinance as a potential cataylst for improved sanitation, Water for People, 27 Dec 2013
Posted in Africa, Funding, Latin America & Caribbean, Publications, Sanitary Facilities, South Asia
Tagged Bolivia, finance, Guatemala, India, Malawi, microfinance, Peru, Rwanda, Sanitation as a business, Uganda, Water for People
This video investigates the cost of having in place inclusive water, sanitation and hygiene services in Uganda. A team of WaterAid and partner staff carried out an accessibility audit on water and sanitation facilities constructed by the community in the districts of Amuria and Katakwi north east Uganda after being trained on making water, sanitation and hygiene services accessible to the disabled , the elderly and people with chronic sicknesses.
This research project aims at understanding barriers faced by persons with disability, chronically ill and elderly when attempting to use standard water, sanitation and hygiene facilities.
It is interesting to see how local communities are using the knowledge acquired to make innovations using locally available materials to put in place inclusive water and sanitation facilities. This is a clear indication that when local communities are given the right information, they can drive their own change and priorities.