Below is a bibliography that we are compiling on WASH and stunting so please email USAID Water CKM if you have other recent studies or reports that should be added.
The NOURISH Evaluation: Can WASH and Nutrition Boost Kids’ Growth? Global Waters, May 2016. Link
To better understand the possible benefits of improved water, sanitation, hygiene and nutrition on reducing childhood stunting, USAID is undertaking an impact evaluation in Cambodia as part of its anti-stunting intervention under the U.S. Government’s Feed the Future initiative, the NOURISH project. The evaluation’s principal investigator shares what is hoped to be learned from the Agency’s first randomized control trial for WASH programs.
Can Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Help Eliminate Stunting? Current Evidence and Policy Implications. Maternal & Child Nutrition, May 2016. Authors: Oliver Cumming and Sandy Cairncross. Link
This review article considers two broad questions: (1) can WASH interventions make a significant contribution to reducing the global prevalence of childhood stunting, and (2) how can WASH interventions be delivered to optimize their effect on stunting and accelerate progress? The evidence reviewed suggests that poor WASH conditions have a significant detrimental effect on child growth and development resulting from sustained exposure to enteric pathogens but also due to wider social and economic mechanisms. Realizing the potential of WASH to reduce stunting requires a redoubling of efforts to achieve universal access to these services as envisaged under the Sustainable Development Goals. It may also require new or modified WASH strategies that go beyond the scope of traditional interventions to specifically address exposure pathways in the first 2 years of life when the process of stunting is concentrated.
Preventing Environmental Enteric Dysfunction through Improved Water, Sanitation and Hygiene: An Opportunity for Stunting Reduction in Developing Countries. Maternal & Child Nutrition, May 2016. Authors: Mduduzi N.N. Mbuya and Jean H. Humphrey. Link
The unhygienic environments in which infants and young children live and grow must contribute to, if not be the overriding cause of environmental enteric dysfunction. We suggest that a package of baby-WASH interventions (sanitation and water improvement, handwashing with soap, ensuring a clean play and infant feeding environment and food hygiene) that interrupt specific pathways through which feco-oral transmission occurs in the first two years of a child’s life may be central to global stunting reduction efforts.
Improving Nutrition Outcomes with Better Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene: Practical Solutions for Policies and Program, 2015. World Health Organization (WHO), UNICEF, and USAID. Link.
This publication summarizes the current evidence on the benefits of WASH for improving nutrition outcomes and describes how WASH interventions can be integrated into nutrition programs. It provides practical suggestions, targeted at nutrition program managers and implementers, on what WASH interventions should be included in nutrition programs and how to include them. It also seeks to help the WASH community to better understand its role, both as providers of technical expertise in WASH interventions and in prioritizing longer-term improvements to WASH infrastructure, in areas where undernutrition is a concern.
WASH and Nutrition Implementation Brief, 2015. USAID. Link
Positive nutritional outcomes are dependent upon WASH interventions and nutrition actions. Poor WASH conditions create an additional burden of undernutrition. Opportunities for co-programming WASH in nutrition programs exist and are discussed in this brief.
USAID WASH and Nutrition Webinar, 2015. Link
Elizabeth Jordan and Katherine Dennison of USAID discuss the connection between undernutrition and lack of access to water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) services and highlight opportunities for integrated programming to achieve better health outcomes.
Learning Brief on WASH and Nutrition, 2016. WASHplus. Link
When an integrated program is designed at the outset with related project indicators for both WASH and nutrition equally emphasized, then results can be clearly targeted and measured. Despite the best intentions of sector and program managers, a primary challenge is that in most nutrition programs, WASH is considered after the project’s initial design, so projects improvise by identifying strategic opportunities as they arise and incorporating one or two WASH components into an established nutrition program, often without the accompanying indicators appropriate to those interventions