by Anupam Tyagi, Economic Times – Feb 9, 2012
More people die from inadequate sanitation-related causes in India everyday than 10 aeroplanes filled with 200 people each. This has high economic costs. Therefore, achieving adequate sanitation is an imperative.
A summary of the report on economic impacts of inadequate sanitation in India, released on December 20, 2011, by Water and Sanitation Program (WSP) of the World Bank, shows that lack of adequate sanitation in India resulted in an annual loss of $53.8 billion ($161 billion in purchasing power parity, or PPP) or $48 per capita ($144 in PPP) in 2006, the year of evaluation in the report. This was equivalent to 6.4% of GDP in 2006.
Most of these losses were related to health (71.7%; $38.5 billion), and mostly concentrated in children below five years. Other quantified economic losses from inadequate sanitation in this report relate to getting access to cleaner drinking water, time losses from not having access to sanitation, and tourism-related losses.
Bringing Water to Where It is Needed Most: Innovative Private Sector Participation in Water & Sanitation, 2011. World Bank.
In this Smart Lessons brochure we share an innovative and diverse range of initiatives from across the World Bank Group. The variety of lessons and experiences in this publication is inspiring, ranging from the Water Footprints Network that supports businesses improving their water use efficiency to the innovative financing mechanisms enabling the expansion of rural water access in Kenya.
A better understanding of a county’s political and social processes and entities that determine the extent and nature of investments in sanitation could catalyze a sharp increase in numbers of people with access, especially for the poor, according to a new report released by the World Bank and the Water and Sanitation Program (WSP).
Recent World Bank research shows that the current limited focus on sanitation is driven largely by political motivation in the context of competing demands for resources, and to a lesser extent by technical or economic considerations.
Based on an analysis of experiences in Brazil, India, Indonesia, and Senegal, The Political Economy of Sanitation, proposes an approach to address the political economy of sanitation in a given country in order to more effectively advocate with policy makers to invest more and to better target services for poor people.
Posted in Africa, East Asia & Pacific, Funding, Latin America & Caribbean, Policy, Progress on Sanitation, Publications, South Asia
Tagged accountability, Brazil, case studies, finance, India, Indonesia, Senegal, Water and Sanitation Program, World Bank
Following a mid-cycle review of its 2003 water strategy , the World Bank says it is moving from stand-alone water supply projects to those that link water use to resource management. The report, endorsed by the World Bank Board’s Committee on Development Effectiveness (CODE), also directs the Bank Group to provide, with partners, improved sanitation to the 2.6 billion people who still live without it, in both rural areas and fast-growing urban slums.
The strategy review found significant improvement both in funding levels and project performance, with satisfactory ratings consistently higher than the Bank-wide average of 75 per cent. The Bank’s water commitments will continue to rise to an estimated US$ 21-25 billion for the coming three years.
Some other important new strategic directions covered in the review include:
- scaling-up of support for hydropower
- more focus on water for climate change adaptation and mitigation
- increased assistance to agricultural water management; and
- exploring opportunities for private financing for and corporatisation of water utilities
The scaling-up of its water activities has led to a recruitment drive, so that now the Bank employs 158 sector specialists. Nevertheless, there are several areas like (surprisingly) economics and finance, and wastewater reuse where expertise is missing. To compensate for this the Bank set up the Water Anchor which can call on experts as short-term consultants, through various technical support facilities. One of these is SWAT, the Sanitation, Hygiene and Wastewater Support Service. Since its inception in 2005, SWAT has committed about US$ 1 million for operational support in 28 countries and 33 projects. The service has influenced a total sanitation and wastewater investment valued over US$ 1.1 billion.
 Vandycke, N. (2010). Sustaining water for all in a changing climate : World Bank Group implementation progress report of the Water Resources Sector Strategy. Washington, DC, USA, World Bank. xiii, 105 p. Download full report
Related web sites: World Bank – Water | SWAT
Source: World Bank, 31 Aug 2010
The World Bank has approved a loan of $50 million to China to improve rural wastewater management and township infrastructure in Ningbo Municipality.
Ningbo Municipality is a major city in the southeastern coastal zone of China, about 300 km south of Shanghai, and has a population of 5.65 million. Despite rapid economic growth since the late 1970s, Ningbo is facing increasing urban-rural disparities including per capita income of rural residents much below than that of urban residents, fewer economic opportunities, inadequate basic infrastructure, shortage and low quality of drinking water supply, and insufficient sanitation services in the rural areas. The Ningbo Municipal Government is working to implement the New Countryside Development (NCD) Program, a national strategy aimed at reducing the urban-rural disparity, balancing urban and rural development, and promoting human-centered, quality-based, resource-saving and eco-friendly growth in the countryside.
In support of the municipality’s efforts, the Ningbo New Countryside Development Project will focus on improving rural waste water management in about 150 selected villages in Ningbo Municipality and enhancing infrastructure development in Chunhu Town of Fenghua City by financing construction of an access road, water supply networks, and wastewater collection and treatment facilities. In the meantime, the Bank will provide technical assistance to build local capacities.
The total project cost is $107 million with the World Bank contributing about 47 percent.
The World Bank has a close working relationship with Ningbo Municipality. In recent years the Bank financed a number of projects in Ningbo, including the Ningbo Water and Environment Project, Zhejiang Urban Environment Project, and the Global Environment Facility-supported Ningbo Water and Environment Project.
For more information go to the Ningbo New Countryside Development Project page
Source: World Bank, 25 Feb 2010
John Kalbermatten. Photo: Connell Funeral Home
John Kalbermatten, 77, former Senior Water & Wastes Advisor at the World Bank, died on Thursday, 26 February 2009. Born in Luzern, Switzerland, he worked as a professional engineer for the city of Bethlehem, USA, the World Health Organization, retiring from the World Bank in 1986. John continued as a private consultant for 14 years.
In his blog, Prof. Duncan Mara writes: “low-cost Sanitation has lost its greatest Champion”. Realising that the World Bank’s “investments in sewerage were not reaching the poor, [Kalbermatten] persuaded the Bank to fund the 1976-78 low-cost sanitation research project”, says Mara. “This produced some truly ground-breaking publications – for example, the three books on Appropriate Sanitation Alternatives […] – some people, including some sector ‘specialists’, are even now “reinventing” quite a bit of what’s in the first two, simply because they haven’t read them (and probably don’t know about them)”, Mara continues. (More references to publications by John Kalbermatten can be found in IRCDOC).
“John then obtained funds from UNDP in 1978 for project GLO/78/006 for the Technology Advisory Group (TAG), which he established, to start putting the lessons of the research project into practice. TAG’s successor today is the Water and Sanitation Program. Maggie Black’s 1999 publication 1978-1998: Learning What Works – A 20 Year Retrospective View on International Water and Sanitation Cooperation details the work of TAG.
View John Kalbermatten’s guest book on the Connell Funeral Home web page.