Tag Archives: WSSCC

Learning, progress and innovation: Sanitation and hygiene promotion in Madagascar

Learn how the Global Sanitation Fund-supported programme in Madagascar is promoting sustainability and achieving strong sanitation and hygiene results trough a cycle of learning, progress and innovation.

Download the complete case study or explore the sections below:

The national context

Photo: Members of a local sanitation and hygiene advocacy group in the fokontany of Anjalazala celebrate achieving open defecation free status. Credit: FAA/Nirina Roméo Andriamparany

Photo: Members of a local sanitation and hygiene advocacy group in the fokontany of Anjalazala celebrate achieving open defecation free status. Credit: FAA/Nirina Roméo Andriamparany

The latest report from the Joint Monitoring Programme of the United Nations Children’s Fund and World Health Organization highlights revealing statistics on Madagascar’s sanitation and hygiene situation. Approximately 12 percent of the country’s population have access to improved sanitation, while 18 percent have access to shared sanitation that is unimproved, and 30 percent have access to other types of unimproved sanitation. Furthermore, 40 percent defecate in the open. Ensuring improved sanitation and hygiene for all remains a major challenge in the country, but innovations from local partners supported by the Global Sanitation Fund (GSF) are vigorously helping to transform this situation.
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The CLTS journey

Photo: ‘Triggering’ children in the commune of Mangarano, using the open defecation mapping tool. Credit: FAA/Fano Randriamanantsoa

Photo: ‘Triggering’ children in the commune of Mangarano, using the open defecation mapping tool. Credit: FAA/Fano Randriamanantsoa

In rural Madagascar, CLTS is the preferred approach for eliminating open defecation, and these actions also drive overall improvements in sanitation and hygiene. CLTS was introduced in the country in 2008, following its success in Asia. The crux of the approach lies in creating an enabling environment in which communities become self-reliant and improve their own sanitation and hygiene situation without external help.

Video: CLTS ‘triggering in action

CLTS focuses on igniting change in sanitation and hygiene behavior within whole communities, rather than constructing toilets through subsidies. During this social awakening, or ‘triggering’ process in Madagascar, the community looks for visible faeces in their environment. When people realize they are eating faeces this provokes disgust, shame and impacts on dignity. The community then makes and immediate decision to end open defecation. These steps are highlighted in the above video.
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Innovations in sanitation and hygiene behaviour change methods
As the first GSF programme, the Fonds d’Appui pour l’Assainissement (FAA) was the testing ground for various approaches based on the essence of CLTS, which helped to drive the programme’s learning and sharing culture. Sub-grantees have utilized a range of approaches within local communities, sharing their challenges and success with the larger FAA team. Through FAA’s strong learning and sharing system, many of these approaches have been evaluated for their potential to be implemented on a larger scale, and some have become best practices, both within and outside of Madagascar. This case study highlights three best practice approaches evaluated and utilized by the FAA programme: Follow-up MANDONA, local and institutional governance and sanitation marketing.

Follow-up MANDONA
Inspired by CLTS triggering approaches, Follow-up MANDONA is aimed at helping communities speed up their achievement of open defecation free status and initiate the development of local governance mechanisms for sustainability.
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Read the full article on the WSSCC website.

Global Sanitation Fund helps 1.4 million people gain improved sanitation


Children in Senegal carry signs to show support for good hygiene practices including handwashing in a celebration confirming this village in Senegal has improved sanitation. The ceremony is in Agnam Civol, a village which was declared open defecation free thanks to efforts through GSF financed programmes in 2012.

The Global Sanitation Fund Progress Report 2012, a new report from the Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council (WSSCC), details programmatic results, reporting methodology and financial data from Global Sanitation Fund (GSF) programmes in Africa and Asia.

In 10 countries – Cambodia, Ethiopia, India, Madagascar, Malawi, Nepal, Nigeria, Senegal Tanzania and Uganda – Global Sanitation Fund Sub-grantees have implemented sanitation and hygiene awareness-raising and promotion activities resulting in:

  • 1.4 million people with improved toilets.
  • More than 1 million people in nearly 4,000 communities now live in open defecation free environments.
  • Almost 10,000 communities have participated in demand-creation activities.
  • 3.8 million people have heard about the importance of good hygiene through community activities and communications campaigns.

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Asia Regional Sanitation and Hygiene Practitioners Workshop – call for abstracts

From 31st January to 2nd  February 2012 BRAC, WaterAid, WSSCC and IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre will organise a regional sanitation and hygiene practitioners’ workshop in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

The aim of this workshop is to contribute to the evidence base on sanitation and hygiene interventions with sustainable results through documentation and analysis of selected cases. It is set up to support practitioners in identifying practical approaches, steps and lessons for improving their work and to provide an informal setting where participants actively engage and feel confident to question each other and their own assumptions.

The themes for this regional practitioners’ workshop are

  1. Sustainable sanitation services and sustained behaviour change
  2. Equity – reaching the poor and vulnerable
  3. Effective monitoring for change and improved planning

Please read the announcement and call for abstracts and send your abstract to dhaka2012@irc.nl by the 14th of August 2011.

This is the third in a series of (South) Asia regional practitioners’ workshops. For documentation related to the previous workshops, see IRC’s website: www.irc.nl/page/39978

A new publication brings together lessons from 8 regional sanitation  and hygiene workshops held between 2007 and 2011 and can be downloaded here: www.irc.nl/page/65234

UN Secretary-General launches the “Sustainable Sanitation: Five-Year Drive to 2015”

United Nations, 21 June 2011—UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon, along with UNICEF Executive Director Anthony Lake, Ugandan Minister of Water & Environment the Hon. Maria Mutagamba, and His Royal Highness the Prince of Orange, today launched the “Sustainable Sanitation: Five-Year Drive to 2015” (http://www.sanitationdrive2015.org), a push to speed up progress on the Millennium Development Goal target of improving global sanitation by 2015.

The launch took place at United Nations Headquarters in New York, with members of the Secretary-General’s Advisory Board on Water and Sanitation and other dignitaries in attendance.

The Millennium Development Goals include a target of halving, by 2015, the proportion of the population without sustainable access to basic sanitation. With 2.6 billion people – half of the population in developing regions – still without access to improved sanitation, the target is lagging far behind, and without urgent and concerted action globally it will be out of reach.

On 20 December 2010 the UN General Assembly adopted a resolution calling upon the UN Member States to “redouble efforts to close the sanitation gap”.

The resolution established a global push, “Sustainable Sanitation: The Five-Year-Drive to 2015”, to focus attention on the Goal and to mobilize political will, as well as financial and technical resources.  The resolution also made history by calling for an end to open defecation, the most dangerous sanitation practice for public health.

Over 1.1 billion people have no sanitation facilities at all, and practise open defecation. According to UNICEF, inadequate and dirty water, poor sanitation, and improper hygiene are the main causes of diarrhoea, which each year kills at least 1.2 million children under five. The organization says diarrhoeal diseases are mainly excreta-related; therefore it is crucial to protect people from contact with faeces. Improvements in sanitation can lead to an almost 40% reduction in illnesses caused by diarrhoea.

Achievement of the sanitation goal, UNICEF says, will have far-reaching and lasting effects on the health and well-being of millions of people.

WSSCC is playing a key role in developing the advocacy strategy and materials and will work collaboratively with other partners supporting the initiative.

UNICEF is on the ground in over 150 countries and territories to help children survive and thrive, from early childhood through adolescence.  The world’s largest provider of vaccines for developing countries, UNICEF supports child health and nutrition, good water and sanitation, quality basic education for all boys and girls, and the protection of children from violence, exploitation, and AIDS.  UNICEF is funded entirely by the voluntary contributions of individuals, businesses, foundations and governments. For more information about UNICEF and its work visit: www.unicef.org

The United Nations Secretary-General’s Advisory Board on Water and Sanitation is an independent body established in March 2004 by the UN Secretary-General to give him advice as well as to galvanize action on water and sanitation issues. Chaired by His Royal Highness the Prince of the Netherlands, the Board is composed of a wide range of dignitaries, technical experts, and individuals with proven experience in providing inspiration, moving the machinery of government, as well as working with the media, the private sector and civil society. See: http://www.unsgab.org/

The Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council is an international organization that works to improve access to sustainable sanitation, hygiene and water for all people. It does so by enhancing collaboration among sector agencies and professionals who are working to provide sanitation to the 2.6 billion people without a clean, safe toilet, and the 884 million people without affordable, clean drinking water close at hand. WSSCC is hosted by UNOPS and contributes to development through knowledge management, advocacy, communications, and the implementation of a sanitation financing facility. WSSCC supports coalitions in more than 30 countries, and has a broad membership base and a small secretariat in Geneva, Switzerland. http://www.wsscc.org

For further information, please contact:

Leanne Burney, UN Secretary-General’s Advisory Board on Water and Sanitation
Tel: 212 963 5003, Email: burneyl@un.org

Rita Ann Wallace, UNICEF Media
Tel: 212 326 7586, Email: rwallace@unicef.org

Martina Donlon, UN Department of Public Information
Tel: 212 963 6816, Email: donlon@un.org

Amanda Marlin, WSSCC
Tel 41 79 650 2629, Email: amanda.marlin@wsscc.org

Dave Trouba, WSSCC
Tel 41 79 261 5400, Email: david.trouba@wsscc.org


WSSCC and Overseas Development Institute Publish Background Note on sanitation and hygiene advocacy

In 2009 WSSCC worked with the international NGO Tearfund and UK-based Overseas Development Institute (ODI) to examine how sector professionals advocate for sanitation and hygiene to health professionals – and how to improve that advocacy.

A number of leading sanitation and hygiene specialists provided input as well as professionals from the health sector and WSSCC National Coordinators. The outcomes are summarized in an ODI Background Note [1], which examines how health practitioners perceive sanitation and hygiene issues, how sanitation and hygiene professions can strengthen the case for improved services, and what the capacity and research needs are vis-à-vis training health staff in preventive sanitation- and hygiene-based interventions.

[1] Newborne, P. (2010). Making the case for sanitation and hygiene: opening doors in health. (Background note / ODI). London, UK, Overseas Development Institute (ODI). 6 p. : 4 boxes, 1 tab. 9 ref.
Download full document [PDF file]

Senegal: WSSCC commits US$ 5 million to sanitation and hygiene work through the Global Sanitation Fund

At a ceremony under the chairmanship of the Honourable Adama Sall, Senegal’s Minister of Urbanisation and Sanitation, on 30 June 2010, the Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council (WSSCC) committed to spend US$ 5 million in Senegal over the next five years through its Global Sanitation Fund (GSF) programme. Together with a similar amount prescribed for Madagascar in March, a total of US$ 10 million has been committed by WSSCC in 2010 through the world’s first multi-donor fund aimed at helping more people attain safe sanitation and practice good hygiene.

Executing Agency: AGETIP

The new Executing Agency responsible for in-country implementation in Senegal is AGETIP (www.agetip.sn), a national not-for-profit development agency. Over the last two years, a multi-stakeholder development and consultative process took place that culminated in the programme launch on Wednesday 30 June in Dakar. AGETIP, together with WSSCC and national partners (including soon-to-be-funded sub-grantees), have thus committed to improving health, environment and welfare levels through better demand-led sanitation and hygiene programming in Senegal.

Scope of work in Senegal: hygiene education, demand creation and awareness raising

The Global Sanitation Fund will work together with Senegal’s Ministry for Sanitation and Public Hygiene to reach the following objectives:

  • Use of participatory techniques such as Community-Led Total Sanitation to end open defection and create demand for toilets;
  • Improve sanitation services for communities that have received little or no national or international sanitation support;
  • Raise awareness of good hygiene practices;
  • Reduce diarrheal disease; and
  • Increase schooling for girls

Global Sanitation Fund programme

The Senegal launch is the latest in the overall procurement and implementation programme being prepared by WSSCC and its Global Sanitation Fund programme in collaboration with partners in the initial GSF countries. In addition to Madagascar and Senegal, these countries include Bangladesh, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cambodia, Ethiopia, India, Malawi, Nepal, Nigeria Pakistan, Tanzania, Togo and Uganda.

The Governments of Australia, the Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom are contributors to the Global Sanitation Fund.

To learn more, read the press releases:

Madagascar: first national Global Sanitation Fund programme launched

The Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council (WSSCC) launched its first national Global Sanitation Fund programme on 22 March 2010, World Water Day, in Madagascar. Approximately US$ 5 million will be disbursed over the next five years to sub-grantees – community groups, non-governmental organisations, etc. – to implement projects and programmes that raise awareness and create demand locally for sanitation. The Global Sanitation Fund (GSF) will not be used directly or indirectly to fund or subsidise toilet construction schemes.

The WSSCC has recently appointed the international non-governmental organisation Medical Care Development International (MCDI) as the “executing agency” for the GSF in Madagascar.

Scope of work in Madagascar: hygiene education, demand creation and awareness-raising

In Madagascar, the GSF supports work programmes that concentrate on hygiene education, awareness raising and demand creation. In doing so, it aims to:

  • Increase significantly the number of families, particularly the poorest, who have sustainable access to basic sanitation and adopt good hygiene practices,
  • Engage institutional and private actors for the long term in promoting basic sanitation that is sustainable, affordable and culturally appropriate, and
  • Spread proven and innovative approaches to sanitation and hygiene at a large scale.

The WSSCC established the GSF to boost expenditure on sanitation and hygiene in developing countries. On average, nationally run programmes will each receive US$ 1 million per year from the fund. The United Nations Office for Project Services (UNOPS) hosts WSSCC, and the GSF is formally a United Nations Trust Fund. The Governments of Australia, the Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom have contributed to the GSF.

Madagascar is the first of seven countries selected for the first round of funding in 2010; the others are Burkina Faso, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Senegal and Uganda.

Read more about the GSF programme in Madagascar.

Source: WSSCC, 22 Mar 2010