Category Archives: Emergency Sanitation

An Emergency WASH Network Update, December 11, 2020

This update contains links to recently published articles and reports and upcoming events and courses. The next update will focus on WASH & neglected tropical diseases in humanitarian situations so let us know of recent research, studies, resources, etc. 


ELRHA – Innovation Challenge: Facilitating the Adoption of Humanitarian WASH Innovations – The ambition of this first-of-its-kind Adoption Challenge is to enable humanitarian organizations to adopt promising new solutions, adapt them to new settings and evaluate their effectiveness. Application deadline, January 25, 2021.

Creating Hope in Conflict: a Humanitarian Grand Challenge 2020 Request for Proposals in Numbers, December 2, 2020 – This year, the majority of the solutions (32%) put forward were in the area of Health Supplies and Services; followed by Life-Saving Information (26%); Safe Water and Sanitation (22%); and Energy (20%). Creating Hope in Conflict: A Humanitarian Grand Challenge is a partnership of the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), the U.K. Foreign, Commonwealth & Development office (FCDO), the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Netherlands, with support from Grand Challenges Canada.


IHE Delft – Online Course on Governance in Humanitarian Contexts, May – September 2021: The course aims to critically analyse the humanitarian architecture, the different humanitarian contexts, and decision-making for WASH through a multi-level governance approach.


USAID Water for the World Implementation Research Agenda. USAID, November 2020. After undertaking a comprehensive and consultative process to identify and prioritize evidence gaps associated with its WASH programming approaches, USAID is launching the first-ever Water for the World Implementation Research Agenda to coordinate, integrate, and inspire research and learning in the WASH sector.

Water under fire volume 2: Strengthening sector capacity for a predictable, quality humanitarian response. UNICEF, November 2020. This second volume of the Water Under Fire report series is dedicated to the WASH sector’s capacity to deliver a predictable, quality humanitarian WASH response, and provides a change agenda and road map towards strengthening this capacity.

Kenya – Using drones to share COVID-19 information with vulnerable populations. COVID-19 Hygiene Hub, November 2020. Project staff decided to pilot the use of drones in humanitarian responses and felt that this was an interesting case study to generate new learnings.

Evaluating two novel handwashing hardware and software solutions in Kyaka II refugee settlement, Uganda. Oxfam, November 2020. The Promotion and Practice Handwashing Kit (PPHWK), a robust, user-friendly handwashing station, and Mum’s Magic Hands (MMH), a creative hygiene promotion strategy, were evaluated.

State of the World’s Sanitation. UNICEF, November 2020. This report includes a chapter on Sanitation for forcibly displaced persons.

Waste-to-Value Sanitation in Kakuma Refugee Camp


Market-based solutions are increasingly seen as having an important role in filling gaps in public services provision and bring increased efficiency to humanitarian assistance. UNHCR partnered with the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF) to investigate waste-to-value sanitation solutions for areas with difficult ground conditions in protracted refugee camp settings in East Africa. In response to a call for sanitation solutions for difficult ground conditions in refugee settings, Sanivation introduced an innovative market-based solution with a waste-to-value component to Kakuma Refugee Camp in Kenya.

This report examines the business model and financial model that Sanivation developed during the project and illustrates some of the real world challenges and opportunities for waste-to-value sanitation. It is hoped that the insights from this research will provide a useful reference for potential investors and entrepreneurs, as well as humanitarian practitioners looking to design self-sustaining waste-to-value sanitation services in refugee and low-resource settings in the future.

Download the full report.


eCompendium of Sanitation Technologies 2020

eCompendium of Sanitation Technologies

Reliable planning of sanitation service chain solutions in emergencies
The eCompendium is a comprehensive and well-structured online capacity development and decision support tool that allows real time filtering and configuration of entire sanitation service chain solutions in emergency settings.

It provides detailed information on key decision criteria for all tried and tested emergency sanitation technologies, information on cross-cutting issues and available case studies, relevant to come up with informed sanitation technology decisions in emergencies.

The eCompendium is a systematic compilation of all relevant emergency sanitation technologies. It disaggregates the sanitation service chain into their functional components, defines key terminology and provides concise information on key decision criteria for a wide range of emergency sanitation technologies and related cross-cutting issues.

It facilitates informed decision-making by providing the necessary framework for identifying appropriate technology combinations in a given context and for configuring entire sanitation service chain solutions: from the toilet via collection, transport, treatment to safe disposal and reuse.

COVID-19 and humanitarian WASH – April 7, 2020 update

Be sure and subscribe to the Global WASH Cluster weekly alert on COVID-19 which was launched today. Also below are links to recent COVID-19 reports and resources:

Global WASH Cluster Covid19 Weekly Update, April 7, 2020 – In efforts to provide key information on WASH and the Covid19 response, please find the first issue of this weekly newsletter which will aim at providing a summary of ongoing knowledge sharing initiatives tailored for WASH practitioners and public health humanitarian workers.

The GWC is currently working with key partners on sharing new Covid19 capacity building modules (inclduing RedR and Bioforce) as well as promoting a technical helpdesk for WASH practitioners through the soon-to-be launched Hygiene Hub (LSTHM, CAWST and WASH’em).

Other recent reports and resources

Guidance for the prevention of COVID-19 infections among high-risk individuals in camps and camp-like settings. London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, March 31, 2020. This document provides guidance on the implementation of the shielding approach in camps and camp-like settings for refugees and internally displaced persons. It is intended for the displaced community itself, humanitarian actors and camp coordination / management authorities.

COVID-19 Emergency Response: UNICEF Hygiene Programing Guidance Note. UNICEF, March 2020. This Note provides guidance on which aspects to consider when planning and implementing a hygiene promotion campaign as part of a broader risk communication & community engagement strategy.

Humanitarian WASH – Q&A with Travis Yates of Tufts University

Many thanks to Travis Yatestravis.yates@tufts.edufor sharing some of his insights and experiences in humanitarian WASH. 

Can you give us a brief introduction of yourself and current position?

My name is Travis Yates and I’m a post-doc at Tufts University working with Dr. Daniele Lantagne. Before my time at Tufts, I spent four years in Afghanistan with a couple international NGOs and another six months in Lebanon setting up the response for Syrian refugee influx of 2012 and 2013. After that, I received a fellowship in Water Diplomacy and started my PhD working with Dr. Lantagne on the evidence around humanitarian WASH.

I completed a couple of systematic reviews of WASH in emergencies and have been working with Dr. Lantagne ever since. My most recent work has been with the Global WASH Cluster to gather lessons learned around WASH coordination during a humanitarian response. Assessing the evidence and [potential] impact of coordination across different contexts is quite a challenge.

We have also been working on a resource center with the Global WASH Cluster to maintain key documents that WASH responders would find useful. It is not every WASH document, but focused on: lessons learned, research, or tool kits for humanitarian WASH:

How did you get into working with humanitarian WASH programs specifically?

I applied to an internship program with an international NGO while I was in my final year at university. A six-month commitment abroad seemed like a great opportunity to use my freshly learned engineering skills to help others, not to mention a bit of an adventure.

I was stationed in Afghanistan and had good exposure to writing proposals, organizing workshops, and working with a diverse team. I loved it and came back for a couple more years. I liked the challenges and serving communities in need. I’ve had a few different positions in my international experience but I focused on WASH mostly because of my background with civil engineering.

That focus continued in graduate school, first in applied fluid mechanics then toward public health in the environmental health program at Tufts. Overall, it has been a good balance between engineering and health that I think we see in WASH programming.

Where do you see the humanitarian WASH field headed in the next 5–10 years?

Evidence and Data. I could be biased, but it seems that there is a big push toward more evidence in humanitarian work, and consequently we need more data. Donors and responding organizations want to knowwhat works and what doesn’t.

With more people in need, we need to make sure projects are truly making an impact. Unfortunately, any responder would tell you that getting the data in an emergency to support evidence is just really hard. Timing and logistics are challenges, available resources and ethics considerations are difficult too.

It’s also important to note that this isn’t collecting data for the sake of more data. It needs to be specific and targeted. We have been doing WASH projects for a long time and we have a good grasp on many aspects; however, gaps remain – which is why I think some of the gap exercises and reviews are important for the entire sector.

More specifically, I see cash and vouchers playing a bigger role in the humanitarian response – especially in some of the chronic and protracted contexts which we are seeing more of. I also think expectations around program quality will progress. Tufts has a small role working with Oxfam and Solidarités to help define WASH quality and beneficiary accountability. It is certainly something we need to be working toward and I’m glad to be in that conversation.

What do you see as some of the biggest challenges ahead for humanitarian WASH?

Transitioning to Development and Funding. Going from an emergency to development is a big transition and I don’t think we have many good examples of that consistently working well. Bringing in local government and national organizations will be a key component to success, but there is a lot of variability between contexts.

And then, I think funding will be an issue simply because we have more people in need for longer times. Already many contexts are underfunded, but there is also increasing impacts with climate change and multiple large-scale conflicts around the world. We have to get more efficient with our projects because the basic needs beneficiaries will still be there.

An update from the Global WASH Cluster Resource Center | Emergency WASH research


The Global WASH Cluster is maintaining a resource center focused on humanitarian WASH with links to relevant journal articles, toolkits, and NGO learnings ( There are over 200 key documents cataloged that cover a variety of WASH themes. A sample of recent documents includes:  


Resiliencelinks – The Center for Resilience is part of USAID’s Bureau for Food Security, soon to be the Bureau for Resilience and Food Security.

University of Colorado, Boulder Drought Resilience Impact Program (DRIP) – The Drought Resilience Impact Platform’s comprehensive systems design integrates early detection and planning with proactive groundwater management to ensure water availability, thus enabling drought-prone communities to become effective managers in the prevention of these humanitarian crises.


5 myths about refugees and WASH. SWA, February 2020. This factsheet identifies and debunks 5 common myths surrounding displaced people, and highlights the implications that WASH practitioners must consider.

Kerlink Gateways powers water-monitoring pilot program for UN refugee agency. Waterworld, Feb 2020. Remote wireless sensing and communication abilities are a possible game-changer for monitoring in refugee situations.


Hygiene programming during outbreaks: a qualitative case study of the humanitarian response during the Ebola outbreak in Liberia. BMC Public Health, January 2020.
The experiences of humanitarians allowed us to identify areas that could be strengthened when designing hygiene programmes in future outbreaks. Specifically, we identified a need for rapid research methods to explore behavioural determinants; increased skills training for frontline staff, and increased operational research to explore behaviour change strategies that are suited to outbreak situations.

Market Based Programming for WASH in Humanitarian Situations

Market Based Programming (MBP) for WASH in Humanitarian Situations, December 2019

Case Studies/Country Reports

Water, sanitation, and hygiene access in southern Syria: analysis of survey data and recommendations for response. Conflict and Health, 2018.
Allowing market forces to manage WASH services and quantity, and targeting emergency response activities on increasing affordability with well-targeted subsidies and improving water quality and regulation via WSPs can be an effective, scalable, and cost-effective strategy to guarantee water and sanitation access in protracted emergencies with local markets. SWS

Strengthening market systems that provide water and hygiene items for cholera mitigation and emergency preparedness in Haiti. Waterlines, October 2018.
In the context of the cholera epidemics in Haiti, a pre-crisis market analysis (PCMA) was conducted in Artibonite to study the supply of and demand for various water- and hygiene-related items.

Pathways to professionalised community water services in a protracted crisis: a case from Juba. 41st WEDC Conference, 2018.
The paper depicts Oxfam South Sudan experience in professionalizing a community-based operating entity responsible for managing a water treatment plant in Juba, through WASH Market-based Programming. It describes how this was achieved by supporting the development of a business implementation plan and provision of tailored institutional support.

Refugees: The Most in Need of Zakat Funds. UNHCR, 2019.
Our cash assistance program is an innovative way to ensure that 100% of Zakat donations go to people most in need, to spend on what they need most, instead of providing them with truckloads of unwanted supplies.


WASH Market-Based Programming in Emergencies: Overview. Oxfam, 2018.
This overview, and the WASH and Markets in Crisis series linked to it, describes the impacts of crises on market systems, and introduces the benefits of market-based programming.

Using pre-crisis market analysis to strengthen emergency preparedness and resilience of WASH systems. 41st WEDC Conference, 2018.
This paper describes Oxfam’s experiences using pre-crisis market analysis in Bangladesh, Indonesia, South Sudan and Zimbabwe in order to support market-based programming to strengthen the resilience of market systems and prepare for reoccurring emergencies

Briefing note 2: Types of Market-Based Programming to Strengthen Emergency Responses. Oxfam, 2018.
This briefing note describes different types of WASH market-based programming used in pre-crisis, emergency or post-crisis contexts, giving examples from Oxfam’s experiences in Bangladesh, Indonesia and Zimbabwe.

Building evidence to inform the effective use of cash in emergency sanitation and hygiene programming. Save the Children; ODI, 2018.
An analysis of five case studies of utilization of cash/voucher assistance are presented and analyzed in the attempt of building evidence on their utilization in emergency WASH Sanitation and HP programming. Findings and recommendations are provided on coordination, situation and response analysis, program design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation.

Working with WASH market systems to improve emergency response and resilience in urban areas. HPN, 2018.
With funding from USAID’s Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance (OFDA), Oxfam set out to promote market-based responses to emergencies using pre-crisis market mapping and analysis in Bangladesh, Indonesia, South Sudan and Zimbabwe, focusing primarily in urban areas.

Measuring the benefits of using market based approaches to provide water and sanitation in humanitarian contexts. Journal of Environmental Management, June 2018. The results of the work revealed that CT/MBP can be used to support household, community and market level interventions to effectively reduce transmission of diseases. Efficiency, effectiveness, sustainability, appropriateness and equity were identified as useful parameters which correlated to widely accepted frameworks against which to evaluate humanitarian action.

Cash and Markets In the WASH Sector: A global WASH Cluster position paper. GWC, 2016. The proposed benefits of working through existing market systems include improvements to speed, efficiency and effectiveness of programming and increased beneficiary dignity and choice.

WASH and Cash and Voucher Assistance. Cash Learning Partnership.
In recent years the use of conditional Cash and Voucher Assistance to achieve WASH outcomes has steadily grown. CVA has been used to increase access to drinking water through water vendors or small shops, or through the use of kits for treating and storing water. Cash for work has been used for the repair and recovery of the piped water network.

Other Studies/Reports

Mobilising cash and voucher assistance programmes: The case for mobile money. GSMA, 2019.
Although the fastest means of disbursement at the immediate onset of a crisis is to deliver physical cash, digital options offer greater benefits longer term.

What does gender-sensitive cash and voucher assistance look like? CARE, 2019.
The study aimed at understanding the: Extent to which women, men, boys, and girls have been involved in the design of CVA and the implications of this involvement. Potential for CVA to foster positive and sustainable gender roles and relations that contribute to gender equity.

New financing partnerships for humanitarian impact. ODI, 2019.
Innovative finance applies to using market-based investments – which generate a financial return – rather than grants.

Cost-Effectiveness in Humanitarian Work: Cash-Based Programming. IDS, 2018.
The evidence reviewed also points to the limits of CBR; cash interventions are unable to tackle systemic issues around quality of service provision, education and largely also health (albeit they can help cover costs of dealing with small ailments, or channel some resources into the WASH sector

Continue reading

A humanitarian WASH update – November 20, 2019

Dear Colleagues:

Please contactTravis Yates,, if you have any questions about the GWC Resource Center. Also below are news from Elrha, USAID, studies from Lebanon and Bangladesh and some interesting blog posts from UNHCR, CGIAR and others. emergencies

The Global WASH Cluster is maintaining a resource center focused on humanitarian WASH with links to relevant journal articles, toolkits, and NGO learnings ( There are nearly 200 cataloged documents covering a variety of WASH themes. A sample of documents includes:


We are looking for robust research studies that generate practical, comparative evidence around HIF-funded WASH innovations. The evidence will be useful for both the innovations themselves and the humanitarian sector as a whole. These studies need to be collaborations between WASH innovators, researchers and humanitarian agencies.

USAID Announces Nearly $56 Million in Additional Humanitarian Assistance to Contain Ebola in the Democratic Republic of Congo. USAID, November 2019.
With this funding, the United States is continuing to provide life-saving assistance through on-the-ground partners, including activities to prevent and control infections in health facilities, enhanced surveillance for the disease, training for health-care workers, community-engagement efforts, the promotion of safe and dignified burials, and food to support people and communities affected by Ebola.


Refugees, water balance, and water stress: Lessons learned from Lebanon. Ambio, November 2019.
Results of our spatial analysis show that while the impact of refugees and indirectly conflicts’ on water stress is of paramount importance and it cannot be neglected, opportunities exist for the international community to intervene and provide for water supply and network efficiency improvements, which can relieve the induced stress.

Occurrence of Escherichia coli and faecal coliforms in drinking water at source and household point-of-use in Rohingya camps, Bangladesh. Gut Pathogens, November 2019. Despite the limitations and challenges faced, this is the first study of water quality assessment in the Rohingya camps involving almost half of the total drinking water sources.

A Synthesis Report Analyzing Menstrual Hygiene Management Within a Humanitarian Crisis. OIDA International Journal of Sustainable Development, November 2019.
The lack of universal policy surrounding  the  implementation of  MHM  in a crisis has implications not only for women’s health and dignity, but also for a country’s progress towards  the related SDG targets.

Beyond mapping: a case for geospatial analytics in humanitarian health. Conflict and Health, November 2019.
This paper explores a variety of historical and contemporary geospatial applications in the public health and humanitarian fields and argues for greater integration of geospatial analysis into humanitarian health research and programming.


Groundwater can prevent drought emergencies in the Horn of Africa. Here’s how. The Conversation, November 2019.
The idea is that drought-driven humanitarian emergencies can be prevented if groundwater is reliably made available at strategic locations.

The Growing Threat of Water Wars. Project Syndicate, November 2019.
Today, hundreds of international water agreements are coming under pressure.

Bringing toilets into the home boosts refugees’ health and security. UNHCR, November 2019.
Burundian refugees in eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo receive cash to construct houses and toilets, improving access to better sanitation.

11,000 Steps to Water: How data visualization can impact American perceptions of refugees. UNHCR, November 2019.
One of the prototypes developed was an activity tracking app. This app helps Americans see how their daily activity compares to the daily activity of refugees.

New project offers circular economy solutions for refugee and host communities in East Africa. CGIAR, October 2019.
‘We have developed solutions like pellets from fecal sludge for agriculture and safe wastewater reuse for urban agriculture,’ said the Ethiopian economist. ‘These RRR solutions and other innovations from low-space farming can be adapted to work in refugee settlements.’


Safer water, better health: 2019 update. WHO, 2019.
The report also presents selected WASH interventions that have been shown to improve health and complements them with available cost–effectiveness analyses.

Guidelines on Inclusion of Persons with Disabilities in Humanitarian Action. Inter-Agency Standing Committee (IASC), 2019.
The guidelines set out essential actions that humanitarian actors must take in order to effectively identify and respond to the needs and rights of persons with disabilities who are most at risk of being left behind in humanitarian settings. Chapter 18 is on WASH issues.

Water, sanitation and hygiene in arid and semi-arid lands: What can we learn from the DREAM ASAL Conference 2019?

Water, sanitation and hygiene in arid and semi-arid lands: What can we learn from the DREAM ASAL Conference 2019? CLTS Knowledge Hub, November 2019.

From 29th September to 3rd October the DREAM ASAL (Development of Resilience Empowering Alternative Measures for Ethiopian Lowlands) Conference 2019 took place in the Ethiopian city of Samara, capital of the Afar region. asal.jpg

The five-day conference reunited key stakeholders from government, INGOs and CSOs not only from Ethiopia but also from Kenya, Pakistan, Rwanda and Somaliland.

It was organised by the Ethiopian Ministry of Agriculture and facilitated by the GIZ- Strengthening Drought Resilience (SDR) programme.

The DREAM Conference had two major aims: 1) discuss ways to control, eradicate and make beneficial use of invasive species in the arid and semi-arid lowlands (ASAL), and 2) gather innovative and tested methodologies and technologies in the area of community planning, land rehabilitation, livelihood development, rangeland development, and water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) including disaster risk management, in the lowland areas of the horn of Africa.

Read the complete article.

An Update on Fecal Sludge Management in Humanitarian Situations, October 24, 2019

Please contact us if you have other studies and resources to add to this listing.

An Update on Fecal Sludge Management in Humanitarian Situations, October 24, 2019

Journal articles

A Traditional Closed-Loop Sanitation System in a Chronic Emergency: A Qualitative Study from Afghanistan. Water, February 2019. The use of closed-loop sanitation systems (CLSS), or reuse-oriented sanitation systems, has increased in recent years, and such systems have been successfully implemented in many parts of the world. However, no research has explored Traditional CLSS (T-CLSS) for a long-term humanitarian situation. This study explores the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) of T-CLSS in peri-urban and rural contexts in three different provinces in Afghanistan.

Experimental Determination of Moisture Sorption Isotherm of Fecal Sludge. Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene in Humanitarian Contexts, February 2019. Studies on dewatering performances of FS are limited. The physical water distribution of such matrices is not fully understood, limiting the progress in the development and optimization of FS dewatering technologies. The objective of this study is to present a gravimetric method intended to assess the dewatering characteristics and associated modelling of FS through moisture sorption isotherms.

Assessment of Recommendation for the Containment and Disinfection of Human Excreta in Cholera Treatment Centers. Water, January 2019. These findings suggest that the use of 30% hydrated lime suspensions or 2% chlorine solutions may offer a simple public health protection measure for the containment, safe handling, and disinfection of human excreta during humanitarian emergencies.

Development of a Field Laboratory for Monitoring of Fecal-Sludge Treatment Plants. Water, August 2018. In urban humanitarian-aid operations, safe treatment of fecal sludge is highly important. While currently field-deployable fecal-sludge treatment plants are being developed, field-ready analytical equipment for process-control and public health monitoring is missing. Within the Microbial Sludge Quality project, a field laboratory was developed. SWS


Human Waste-to-fuel Briquettes as a Sanitation and Energy Solution for Refugee Camps and Informal Urban Settlements. IWMI, 2018. Chapter 2 in the report Recovering Bioenergy in Sub-Saharan Africa: Gender Dimensions, Lessons and Challenges, the chapter discusses the human waste-to-charcoal briquettes innovation: (i) Provision of sanitation service through the installation of urine-diverting dry toilets (UDDTs) in dwellings and (ii) The waste-to-fuel briquettes innovation.

Water, Sanitation & Hygiene Innovation Catalogue. Elrha, 2019. The Humanitarian WASH Innovation Catalogue is the first of its kind. It offers a unique overview of some of the most promising new solutions in WASH and is designed to help practitioners decide which innovations could help them solve their most pressing problems.

Decision Making and the Use of Guidance on Sanitation Systems and Faecal Sludge Management in the First Phase of Rapid-Onset Emergencies. Elrha Humanitarian Innovation FundBORDA, 2018. One of the report’s recommendations is that existing resources that were highlighted in this research should utilize the findings and conclusions to strengthen their FSM components, particularly the Sphere Guidance and the WASH Cluster.

Rethinking Faecal Sludge Management in Emergency Settings: Decision Support Tools and Smart Technology Applications for Emergency Sanitation. CRC Press, Jul 24, 2019. Order info and summary: This study focused on the development of a smart emergency toilet termed the eSOS (emergency sanitation operation system) smart toilet to address the limitation in technical options. This toilet is based on the eSOS concept that takes into account the entire sanitation chain.


Compendium of Sanitation Technologies in Emergencies – The Compendium of Sanitation Technologies in Emergencies provides a structured and user-friendly manual and planning guide for sanitation solutions in emergency settings. It supports and enables decision making by providing the necessary framework for developing a sanitation system design.

WHO Sanitation system fact sheets. These fact sheets provide guidance on some of the most frequently-used sanitation systems. Each describes the applicability of the system in different contexts; design, operation and maintenance considerations; and mechanisms for protecting public health at each step of the sanitation service chain.

Evaluating the Potential of Container-Based Sanitation. World Bank, 2019. This report builds on four case studies (SOIL – Haiti, x-runner – Peru, Clean Team – Ghana, Sanergy – Kenya) to assess the role CBS can play in a portfolio of solutions for citywide inclusive sanitation (CWIS) services. The authors conclude that CBS approaches should be part of the CWIS portfolio of solutions, especially for poor urban populations for whom alternative on-site or sewer-based sanitation services might not be appropriate.

Evaluating the viability of establishing container-based sanitation in low-income settlements. Waterlines, July 2019. The potential viability of CBS services has been assessed for urban informal settlements in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. The viability of CBS services in these settlements was found to be most influenced by the current availability of basic sanitation facilities, the unfamiliarity with paying for sanitation services, and the universally adopted practice of anal cleansing with water.

Sanivation: Providing a range of employment opportunities for refugees. IFC, April 2019. Chapter 3 in Private Sector & Refugees Pathways to Scale.

Compendium of Innovative Sanitation Technologies. Tamil Nadu Urban Sanitation Support Programme (TNUSSP), December 2018. The Compendium presents various innovations in technologies both on field and in laboratories. These technologies span across the faecal sludge value chain comprising user interface, containment, collection, transportation, treatment, and reuse. It provides reader of the Compendium with various options for implementation at the ground level contextual to demographic and geo-climatic situations.


Operational Collaborative Tool for Ongoing Practices in Urgent Sanitation​ (OCTOPUS) – Fecal sludge disposal and treatment is a significant problem in rapid onset emergencies. Low consideration is given to this issue when deploying emergency responses, and while general guidance and resources exist, improper decisions are often made.  To address this issue, Solidarités International has created the first collaborative platform called OCTOPUS. Intended for sanitation practitioners,