Category Archives: Emergency Sanitation

Guide to Community Engagement in WASH: A practitioner’s guide, based on lessons from Ebola

Guide to Community Engagement in WASH: A practitioner’s guide, based on lessons from Ebola, November 2016. Oxfam.

This guide is a compilation of best practices and key lessons learned through Oxfam’s experience of community engagement in the 2014–15 Ebola responses in Sierra Leone and Liberia.

It provides ideas for all stages of an intervention, including the importance of assessment; principles and methods for community engagement; the challenges of scaling-up responses and changing communities’ behaviours; and reflections on how to better advocate for communities.

Drawing on semi-structured interviews and input from practitioners in various agencies, as well as a literature review, this guide aims to inform public health practitioners and programme teams about the design and implementation of community-centred approaches during a disease outbreak.

 

CLTS in Post Emergency and Fragile States Settings

CLTS Knowledge Hub at IDS  – Recording of a webinar on CLTS in Post Emergency and Fragile States Settings held on the 21st July 2016.

Speaker: Frank Greaves, Tearfund

 

Toilets That Turn Urine Into Electricity To Be Installed In Refugee Camps

Toilets That Turn Urine Into Electricity To Be Installed In Refugee Camps | Source: HuffPost Tech, July 7 2016 |

A revolutionary urinal that uses bacterial metabolism to turn urine into electricity is set to be used to improve sanitation facilities in refugee camps.

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BRISTOL BIOENERGY CENTRE (UWE)

The toilet, which has been funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Fund, generates enough electricity to light facilities, aiding the safety of people in communal accommodation.

The technology was trialled by over a thousand people a day at last month’s Glastonbury festival, where the electricity was used to illuminate the cubicle housing the urinal.

In collaboration with Oxfam and other organisations,the researchers are now planning to test the urinals in India and in some regions of Africa.

Read the complete article.

Beyond hardware: how a portable sink can inspire behaviour change

Beyond hardware: how a portable sink can inspire behaviour change by Geoff Revell at WaterSHED | Source: WaterAid Blog, June 29, 2016 |

Despite having a cheap and simple fix that could prevent millions of deaths, how to encourage handwashing has puzzled WASH sector experts for years. The rate of handwashing with soap after using the toilet is still estimated to be only 16%. So how do we get people to wash their hands? Geoff Revell, Program Director at WaterAid partner NGO WaterSHED, explains how development of the HappyTap sheds light on new ways to target behaviour. 

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Children using a Happy Tap at school in Ben Tre province, Vietnam.

Awareness campaigns have long been the mainstay of public health efforts to improve handwashing, but on their own they are typically unsuccessful. A multi-year, large-scale behaviour-change campaign in Vietnam, led by World Bank and funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, put the challenge in focus. The evaluation of the campaign concluded: ‘the intervention led to an increase in knowledge’, but ‘handwashing with soap behavior in the target population has not changed substantially as a result of the intervention, and thus no health or productivity impacts are found’.

Unfortunately, there is a persistent gap between knowledge and action; after years of education and promotion, many families understand when and why to wash their hands, but still aren’t doing it. Various studies, including one from Kyrgyzstan, have shown a link between the presence of handwashing facilities and rates of handwashing, suggesting a possible causal relationship. But is having more sanitary hardware enough to get people to routinely wash their hands?

Bridging the adoption gap

It’s unlikely that any single intervention would be a silver bullet. However, although sanitary hardware might help improve rates of washing, we can go beyond the physical hardware and use facilities to reinforce and build on awareness. The HappyTap is the first such hardware designed with behaviour change front and centre. It’s a portable sink that not only delivers functionality, but also inspires change.

How can a handwashing station be more than the sum of its parts? Three crucial elements in the design and marketing help boost its success.

Read the complete article.

WHO – Recovery Toolkit: Supporting countries to achieve health service resilience

Recovery Toolkit: Supporting countries to achieve health service resilience: A library of tools & resources available during the recovery period of a public health emergency, 2016.

WHO

The overall goal of this Toolkit is to support countries in the reactivation of essential health services in the aftermath of a public health emergency. The Toolkit has been constructed to support the implementation of national health plans. The initial target audience are WHO Country Offices, for onward sharing and dissemination to ministries of health and implementation partners in-country.

Pages 44 – 48 are focused on WASH resources.

Impact of WASH interventions during disease outbreaks in humanitarian emergencies: A systematic review protocol

Impact of WASH interventions during disease outbreaks in humanitarian emergencies: A systematic review protocol, 2016. Authors: Yates, Travis, Vijcic, Jelena Joseph, Myriam Leandre, Lantagne, Daniele

The purpose of this document is to clearly describe the proposed research questions and methodology for a systematic review on water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) interventions in disease outbreaks. The systematic review has a singular overarching objective in assessing the impact of emergency hygiene interventions. oxfam

The primary research question will be answered through four secondary objectives that further evaluate: a) use of service and disease reduction; b) positive intervention characteristics; c) cost-effectiveness; and d) non-health related factors of emergency WASH interventions in disease outbreaks.

This review is funded through the Humanitarian Evidence Programme, a UK Aid-funded partnership between Oxfam and Feinstein International Center (FIC) at the Friedman School of Nutrition at Tufts University. The Humanitarian Evidence Programme aims to synthesize evidence in the humanitarian sector and communicate the findings to stakeholders, with the ultimate goal of improving humanitarian policy and practice.

WASH Alliance Kenya – Impact of a school WASH club