Household sanitation facilities and women’s risk of non-partner sexual violence in India

Household sanitation facilities and women’s risk of non-partner sexual violence in IndiaBMC Public Health, November 2016.

Background – Globally, one in ten individuals practice open defecation. Despite media speculation that it increases women’s risk of sexual violence, little empirical evidence supports the claims. We investigate the relationship between household sanitation facilities and women’s risk of non-partner sexual violence (NPSV) in India, where nearly half of the population lives without a pit or toilet.

Methods – We use the most recent NPSV data, from the National Family Health Survey-III, to estimate logistic regression models of the effects of household sanitation facilities (toilet, pit, or none) on NPSV in the last year among women who have resided in their current home for one year or more. These effects are estimated net of other socioeconomic factors, compared to effects of household sanitation facilities on child diarrhea, and, as a falsification test, compared to effects of household sanitation facilities on intimate partner sexual violence (IPSV) in the last year.

Results – Net of their socioeconomic status, women who use open defecation are twice as likely to face NPSV as women with a household toilet. This is twice the association between open defecation and child diarrhea. The results of our falsification test indicate that open defecation is not correlated with IPSV, thus disconfirming a simultaneous selection of women into open defecation and sexual violence.

Conclusions
Our findings provide empirical evidence that lacking household sanitation is associated with higher risk of NPSV.

Assessment of Macro-Level Socioeconomic Factors That Impact Waterborne Diseases: The Case of Jordan

Assessment of Macro-Level Socioeconomic Factors That Impact Waterborne Diseases: The Case of Jordan. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(12), 1181; doi:10.3390/ijerph13121181

The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan is an example of a country that suffers from high water scarcity. Additionally, due to the economic drivers in the country, such as phosphate and potash extraction and pharmaceutical production, the little fresh water that remains is generally polluted. The infrastructure, often antiquated in urban areas and non-existent in rural areas, also contributes to poor water conditions and to the spread of waterborne diseases.

This paper examines the socioeconomic factors that contribute to diarrhea and hepatitis A on a macro level in Jordan and discusses the public-policies that government officials could use to abate those problems. Ordinary least squares time series models are used to understand the macro-level variables that impact the incidence of these diseases in Jordan. Public health expenditure has a significant impact on reducing their incidence.

Furthermore, investment in sanitation facilities in rural regions is likely to reduce the number of cases of hepatitis A. Perhaps the most surprising outcome is that importation of goods and services likely results in a decrease in cases of hepatitis A. However, income has little impact on the incidence of diarrhea and hepatitis A.

SuSanA monthly webinar: Climate change and the water cycle: decarbonizing the water and wastewater sector -Thurs 15 Dec, 13:00 BST (London time)

Please join us for the last SuSanA webinar of the year, on ‘Climate change and the water cycle: decarbonizing the water and wastewater sector’ scheduled for Thursday December 15th 2016 at 13:00 BST (London time).

Overview:

Climate Change is water change. The effects and impacts of climate change are most dramatically felt through changes in water. But what is the role that water plays in the international climate debate and which opportunities for collaboration exist to combat climate change?

This webinar will discuss how climate change is aggravating the challenges that water and wastewater utilities face and strategies for decarbonizing the sector. Water managers in developing and emerging economies are confronted with meeting an increased demand for water and wastewater services of a growing urban population coupled with reduced water availability and the growing pressure to reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. A carbon accounting tool for utilities is presented (Energy and Carbon Assessment and Monitoring), which supports utilities in optimizing their energy use and wastewater treatment processes to improve their carbon footprint.

Case studies from Peru, Mexico and Thailand demonstrate that through energy generation from biogas, energy efficient pumps, water loss reduction and water reuse, carbon emissions can be significantly reduced across the urban water cycle.

Presenters:
– Dr. Astrid Michels, GIZ, Project Manager of the Water and Wastewater Companies for Climate change Mitigation Project
– Willy Alarcon, GIZ, Senior Advisor WaCCliM Financing & Carbon Market

Schedule: The webinar will last approximately 45 minutes with two presentations and an open discussion with webinar participants. We will also open the session 30 minutes beforehand so you can test your video or microphone and meet other participants.

The webinar is being hosted by Stockholm Environment Institute and the SuSanA secretariat as part of a grant to SEI funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

Time:
8:00 New York/Washington DC
13:00 London
14:00 Stockholm
15:00 Nairobi
17:30 New Delhi
19:00 Hanoi
23:00 Sydney

To register please follow this link: www.susana.org/en/webinar-registration-dec-15

To see the SuSanA forum post for updates: http://forum.susana.org/component/kunena/146-webinars-and-online-meetings/19737-susana-webinar-climate-change-and-the-water-cycle-decarbonizing-the-water-and-wastewater-sector-thursday-dec-15th-1300-bst-london-time

Smells of Success

Published on Nov 16, 2016

About 800,000 children under age 5 die each year from diarrhea, pneumonia, and other common infections caused by unsafe water and sanitation. So how could a perfume company help?

Bill Gates shares what he learned during a tour of Firmenich, a family-owned fragrance and flavor company based in Geneva.

Learn more at http://b-gat.es/2fIZaUK

Challenges and opportunities for inclusive and sustainable WASH

Challenges and opportunities for inclusive and sustainable WASH. Institute of Development Studies, November 30, 2016. ctls_book_drawing

Great strides have been made in improving sanitation in many developing countries, not least through Community Led Total Sanitation (CLTS), an innovative method developed to address the behaviours behind ongoing open defecation.

CLTS has spread rapidly over the last 16 years and is now present in over 60 different countries. However recent research shows that more thinking and action is needed to ensure that sanitation efforts are sustainable and inclusive.

A new book, entitled Sustainable Sanitation for All, examines how CLTS and the WASH sector more generally  has and needs to continue to evolve to meet these challenges.

Read the complete article.

 

‘Taking a Shit While Riding a Horse’: Comic Decodes Train Toilets

‘Taking a Shit While Riding a Horse’: Comic Decodes Train Toilets. The Quint, November 29, 2016. naveen

Does the urge to go to the loo in an Indian train make you get into battle-ready mode? Do you return with a sense of grand victory, or does the experience leave an ‘eternal scar’?

Comedian Naveen Richard’s recent video, titled ‘The Indian Train Toilet Experience’, lays bare various such bumbling toilet experiences of ours which we may have been too embarrassed to admit to.

Whether it is opening the toilet door only to find someone who is blissfully attending to nature’s call without fastening the right latch, or getting that heart-sinking feeling when that chain of the mug is just not long enough, Richard makes us both cringe and laugh at the same time.

Read the complete article and view the video.

The Nano Membrane Toilet – new funding and video

The Nano Membrane Toilet – new funding and video. Nano Membrane Toilet Blog, November 25, 2016. nano_membrane_toilet

Cranfield University’s Nano Membrane Toilet project has landed a major funding boost to secure the next phase of development of a novel and sustainable sanitation solution for the benefit of the huge number of people around the world who currently have no hope of being able to access a clean and affordable toilet in their home.

Dr Alison Parker, from the Cranfield Water Science Institute, said; “This is a great moment; the new funding from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation will support our research teams in water, energy and design to tackle the considerable challenge of turning the laboratory prototype Nano Membrane Toilet into a product for the marketplace.”

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