USAID & Water Information Survey

USAID is developing a new web portal that could potentially serve as a centralized resource for Agency staff, partners and the public on global water issues. The portal is being designed as a hub for news, technical content, program and country information and data on Agency-wide water sector activities. usaid-logo-jpg

The below brief and voluntary survey will help USAID determine what content and features would be of greatest use to the water and development community. The entire survey should take less than 5 minutes for you to complete.

For more information please contact the E3/Water Office – Communications and Knowledge Management team at waterteam@usaid.gov.

Link to the survey: http://ow.ly/XC1Xq

Feb 18 Webinar – WASHing away diseases: two hands at a time

February 18, 2016 Webinar, 9:00 a.m EST- WASHing away diseases: two hands at a time

Please join the Global Public-Private Partnership for Handwashing and the USAID/WASHplus project for a webinar discussing why water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) matter to neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), and addressing the need for new approaches for multi-sector initiatives to promote equity, poverty alleviation, health, and well-being. webinar

Featuring speakers from WaterAid, Sightsavers, the FHI 360-led USAID/WASHplus project, and USAID, this webinar is an excellent opportunity for those working in both WASH and NTDs to learn about the global landscape of WASH/NTD strategy and glean practical insights from projects that are operating in this context.

This webinar will include brief presentations on:

  • The link between WASH and NTDs
  • How we can work together to achieve common goals through the World Health Organization’s Joint WASH-NTD strategy; and
  • Integration in practice.About the speakers:
  • Renuka Bery, MPH, Senior Program Manager for the USAID/WASHplus project, has an extensive background in WASH integration.
  • Sophie Boisson, PhD, Technical Officer for Water, Sanitation, Hygiene and Health at the World Health Organization.
  • Edouard Tianhoun, RN, MSc, WASH-NTD Coordinator for the USAID/WASHplus Burkina Faso pilot project, has been in involved in WASH programs in his native Burkina Faso since 2011.
  • Yael Velleman, MSc, Senior Policy Analyst on Health and Sanitation, leads WaterAid’s strategy, advocacy, and research agenda on health.
  • Merri Weinger, MPH, Senior Environmental Health Advisor at USAID’s Bureau for Global Health, has over 30 years of experience in health programs at USAID, WHO, and PAHO.
  • Geordie Woods, MPH, Technical Adviser-NTDs at Sightsavers, specializes in health behavior and strategic communication with a technical focus that includes NTDs and WASH.

WASH Alliance Kenya – Impact of a school WASH club

CARE/Bangladesh -Towards Total Sanitation

 

WSUP – Behavior change in Dhaka

 

Faecal Sludge Management: WASH in Emergencies Problem Exploration Report

WASH in Emergencies Problem Exploration Report: Faecal Sludge Management, 2016. Humanitarian Innovation Fund (HIF).

This report puts forward a few areas for further exploration and development.

Easy to implement, portable toilet systems: New toilet system designs are needed that can allow for the better management of faecal sludge accumulation and can facilitate regular emptying. The designs should also consider the integration of additive mixing and dosing devices.

Standardised guidelines for assessing existing sanitation equipment: Guidelines could propose a method for evaluating available local equipment such as sewer trucks (e.g. number, state, storage capacity, spare parts and connecting), and other tools such as de-sludging pumps.

New protocols for the treatment and control of faecal sludge accumulation: Studies have shown that it is more reliable to consider the control of the accumulation before the latrine is in use, than to try to absolutely reduce existing sludge volume. It is clear that some additives work but further research is needed to understand how and when to use these. Research and experimentation studies should continue to test and compare bio-additives, as well as define new protocols and objectives.

Evaluation of speedy aerobic and anaerobic treatment concepts: Additional research needs to be carried out to assess the field effectiveness of both speedy aerobic and anaerobic treatment concepts in reducing the volume of sludge collected from pits. For anaerobic process concepts, feasibility studies can also help determine if biogas resulting from the process can be used for downstream application.

Guidelines for assessing and improving dumping sites: Practical guidelines for assessing existing dumping sites would be very beneficial, as well as suggested solutions and options on how to improve the capacity of storing and disposing of faecal sludge during a period of emergency. However, even with such guidelines, the process would not be straightforward as setting up or improving a dumping site requires skilled people, qualified in the area of environmental engineering.

Infant and Young Child Feces Management and Enabling Products for Their Hygienic Collection, Transport, and Disposal in Cambodia

Below are links to the abstracts of 3 interesting WASH studies that can be downloaded free of charge from the American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

Infant and Young Child Feces Management and Enabling Products for Their Hygienic Collection, Transport, and Disposal in Cambodia
Authors: Molly K. Miller-Petrie*, Lindsay Voigt, Lyn McLennan, Sandy Cairncross and Marion W. Jenkins

Abstract/order info: http://goo.gl/o252V9

In Cambodia, children’s feces are rarely disposed of in an improved sanitation facility. This study examines current practices and the role that enabling products may play in increasing hygienic management of infant and young child (IYC) feces in households with access to improved sanitation.

A survey was conducted with the primary caregiver of a child under 5 years of age in 130 homes with an improved latrine in 21 villages across two provinces in Cambodia. Two focus group discussions per province were conducted after the survey to obtain caregiver feedback on new enabling products for hygienic management. Among caregivers, 63% reported child feces disposal in an improved latrine but only 36% reported doing so consistently.

Besides child age, years of latrine ownership, caregiver age, consistency of adult latrine use, and presence of child feces management tools in the latrine were associated with hygienic disposal. The youngest caretakers with the newest latrines and youngest children were least likely to dispose of IYC feces hygienically, representing a key target group for interventions to improve hygienic disposal in Cambodia. Reusable diapers, child-friendly potties, and possibly latrine seats, that offer child safety, time and cost savings, and easy disposal and cleaning could potentially facilitate hygienic disposal for these ages.

A Cluster Randomized Controlled Evaluation of the Health Impact of a Novel Antimicrobial Hand Towel on the Health of Children Under 2 Years Old in Rural Communities in Nyanza Province, Kenya
Authors: Rachel B. Slayton*, Jennifer L. Murphy, Jamae Morris, Sitnah Hamidah Faith, Jared Oremo, Aloyce Odhiambo, Tracy Ayers, Shawna J. Feinman, Allison C. Brown and Robert E. Quick

Abstract/order info: http://goo.gl/L76AEH

To assess the health impact of reusable, antimicrobial hand towels, we conducted a cluster randomized, yearlong field trial. At baseline, we surveyed mothers, and gave four towels plus hygiene education to intervention households and education alone to controls. At biweekly home visits, we asked about infections in children < 2 years old and tested post-handwashing hand rinse samples of 20% of mothers for Escherichia coli.

At study’s conclusion, we tested 50% of towels for E. coli. Baseline characteristics between 188 intervention and 181 control households were similar. Intervention and control children had similar rates of diarrhea (1.47 versus 1.48, P = 0.99), respiratory infections (1.38 versus 1.48, P = 0.92), skin infections (1.76 versus 1.79, P = 0.81), and subjective fever (2.62 versus 3.40, P = 0.04) per 100 person-visits.

Post-handwashing hand contamination was similar; 67% of towels exhibited E. coli contamination. Antimicrobial hand towels became contaminated over time, did not improve hand hygiene, or prevent diarrhea, respiratory infections, or skin infections.

Consistency of Use and Effectiveness of Household Water Treatment Practices Among Urban and Rural Populations Claiming to Treat Their Drinking Water at Home: A Case Study in Zambia
Authors: Ghislaine Rosa*, Paul Kelly and Thomas Clasen

Abstract/order info: http://goo.gl/ocN3bH

Household water treatment (HWT) can improve drinking water quality and prevent disease, if used correctly and consistently. While international monitoring suggests that 1.8 billion people practice HWT, these estimates are based on household surveys that may overstate the level of consistent use and do not address microbiological effectiveness.

We sought to examine how HWT is practiced among households identified as HWT users according to international monitoring standards. Case studies were conducted in urban and rural Zambia. After a baseline survey (urban: 203 households, rural: 276 households) to identify HWT users, 95 urban and 82 rural households were followed up for 6 weeks.

Consistency of HWT reporting was low; only 72.6% of urban and 50.0% of rural households reported to be HWT users in the subsequent visit. Similarly, availability of treated water was low, only 23.3% and 4.2% of urban and rural households, respectively, had treated water on all visits. Drinking water was significantly worse than source water in both settings.

Only 19.6% of urban and 2.4% of rural households had drinking water free of thermotolerant coliforms on all visits. Our findings raise questions about the value of the data gathered through the international monitoring of HWT practices as predictors of water quality in the home.