A Third Of Hospitals In Developing Nations Don’t Have Clean Water

A Third Of Hospitals In Developing Nations Don’t Have Clean Water: Study | Source: Huffington Post, June 23, 2016 |

Doctors often operate with dirty instruments because they have no other choice

At least a third of hospitals in developing nations do not have clean running water, a study has found, leading to unsanitary conditions and further spread of disease in drought-hit areas.

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YIDA REFUGEE CAMP, SOUTH SUDAN – JToto Kafi, 2 years, lays in a hospital bed suffering from painful skin infections and malnourishment at the MSF ( Medecins Sans Frontieres ) hospital inside the Yida refugee camp. (Photo by Paula Bronstein/Getty Images)

The study examined 430 hospitals in developing countries and found that one third of clinics did not have a reliable source of clean water to perform surgical operations.

Water availability ranged from 20 percent in Sierra Leone and Liberia to more than 90 percent in India, Malaysia and Guinea, according to the report, which used World Bank data and analysed previous studies between 2009 and 2015.

“Running water is something we take for granted and it doesn’t exist in a third of hospitals in these countries,” said Adam Kushner, lead author of the study, published in the Journal of Surgical Research.

“Instead of water just being there, some hospitals truck in water or collect it in rain barrels, with no guarantee of its cleanliness,” said Kushner, an adjunct professor at Johns Hopkins University who is also a surgeon.

Every year, half a million babies die before they are one-month-old due to a lack of clean water and safe sanitation in hospitals, according to a 2015 report by sanitation charity WaterAid and the World Health Organisation (WHO).

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Peeing in public still a concern, Modi seeks changes in Swachh Bharat campaign

Peeing in public still a concern, Modi seeks changes in Swachh Bharat campaign | Source: Hindustan Times, June 23 2016 |

Prime Minister Narendra Modi has spotted a gap in his Swachh Bharat campaign: the grotesque but common sight of men urinating in public places.

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The PM’s point was that the earlier tagline – “Making Cities Open Defecation Free” – did not adequately reflect the challenge of public urination across the country. (HT file photo)

Modi has told the Union urban development (UD) ministry to ensure that the government’s outreach doesn’t just focus on open defecation in cities but target urination in public places as well. As the first step, the PM has asked the ministry to change the nomenclature of the campaign’s tagline. In line with the PM’s directive following a meeting on June 1 to review the progress of Swachh Bharat Mission, the ministry has set the ball rolling to call its campaign “Open Urination and Defecation Free Cities by 2019”.

The PM’s point, a senior government official who attended the meeting said, was that the earlier tagline – “Making Cities Open Defecation Free” – did not adequately reflect the challenge of public urination across the country.

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Methane production for sanitation improvement in Haiti

Methane production for sanitation improvement in HaitiBiomass and Bioenergy
Volume 91, August 2016, Pages 288–295.

Authors: Stephanie Lansing, Holly Bowen,  et. al.

There is a great need for decentralized anaerobic digestion (AD) that utilizes wastewater for energy generation. The biochemical methane potential (BMP) of Haitian latrine waste was determined and compared to other waste streams, such as grey water, septage, and dairy manure.

Average methane (CH4) production for the latrine waste (13.6 ml ml−1 substrate) was 23 times greater than septage (0.58 ml ml−1 substrate), and 151 times greater than grey water (0.09 ml ml−1 substrate), illustrating the larger potential when waste is source separated using the decentralized sanitation and reuse (DESAR) concept for more appropriate treatment of each waste stream.

Using the BMP results, methane production based on various AD configurations was calculated, and compared with the full-scale field AD design.

Methane potential from the BMP testing was calculated as 0.006–0.017 m3 person−1 day−1 using the lowest and highest latrine BMP results, which was similar to the values from the full-scale system (0.011 m3 person−1 day−1), illustrating the ability of BMPs to be used to predict biogas production from sanitation digesters in a smaller-scale setting.

Improving CLTS targeting: Evidence from Nigeria

Improving CLTS targeting: Evidence from Nigeria, 2016. 

Co-authored by WaterAid and EDePo at IFS: Laura Abramovsky, Britta Augsburg, Erin Flynn, Francisco Oteiza.

CLTS works with an entire community to identify the negative effects of poor sanitation, especially the practice of open defecation, and empowers them to collectively find solutions. CLTS is understood to be more suitable for small, rural and homogeneous communities, however it is still considered an appropriate solution for more urbanised areas.

In this brief, we provide quantitative evidence to support this conjecture and bring forward a simple rule of thumb that allows more efficient programme targeting. We suggest that using this information can improve the targeting of CLTS in Nigeria, and possibly other countries, freeing up scarce resources to identify and test complementary sanitation approaches suitable for more urbanised communities.

 

Global Water Pathogen Project (GWPP)

Global Water Pathogen Project (GWPP)

To improve sustainable access to basic sanitation and safe  drinking water, GWPP will update knowledge on water pathogens using advanced information technologies by publishing and disseminating a state-of-the-art reference resource on water-related disease risks and intervention measures (replacing Sanitation and Disease Health Aspects of Excreta and Wastewater Management by Feachem, Bradley, Garelick and Mara. 1983) and create an online open-access data base and knowledge platform.

GWPP will provide an updated review of the efficacy of sanitation technologies and serve as a compendium of waterborne pathogen information and quantitative data to support risk assessment to protect water safety.  Work will also be conducted with the World Health Organization to support its Sanitation Guidelines.

From waste-picker to waste professional: A Bengaluru organisation recycles livelihoods

From waste-picker to waste professional: A Bengaluru organisation recycles livelihoods | Source: The News Minute, June 17 2016 |

Hasiru Dala also creates awareness about segregating dry waste and wet waste.

Thirty-eight-year-old Lakshmi has been working as a waste-picker in Bengaluru for five years. “We are called thieves when we are collecting waste. Some have even gone to the extent of calling the police,” said Lakshmi lamenting the state of waste-pickers in the city. Hasiru (1)

However, all that changed when Hasiru Dala, a social enterprise that organise waste-pickers came forward and provided Lakshmi with an ID card. “The green card from Hasiru Dala helps us avoid such problems,” she said.

Hasiru Dala, an organisation that turn waste-pickers to waste professionals aids the Bruhat Bengaluru Mahanagara Palike (BBMP) in managing Bengaluru’s massive waste production by providing waste management services for homes, apartments, commercial set-ups and events.. From a family wedding to a city-wide marathon, Hasiru Dala (Green Army in Kannada) provides waste management services for all kinds of events.

Along with recycling waste, Hasiru Dala has also managed to recycle the livelihoods of thousands of waste pickers in the city like that of Lakshmi. Shekhar Prabhakar, Managing Director of Hasiru Dala said, “Waste-picking is a job totally dependent on luck. It is not an easy job. Waste pickers bend down hundreds of times in covering a 10 km stretch. We are aiming to create dignified labour by providing waste-pickers with ID cards.” Hasiru Dala has helped around 7500 waste-pickers obtain an ID card.

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Managing menstruation in the workplace: an overlooked issue in low- and middle-income countries

Managing menstruation in the workplace: an overlooked issue in low- and middle-income countriesInt J Equity Health. 2016; 15: 86.

Authors: Marni Sommer, Sahani Chandraratna, Sue Cavill, et. al.

The potential menstrual hygiene management barriers faced by adolescent girls and women in workplace environments in low- and middle-income countries has been under addressed in research, programming and policy. Despite global efforts to reduce poverty among women in such contexts, there has been insufficient attention to the water and sanitation related barriers, specifically in relation to managing monthly menstruation, that may hinder girls’ and women’s contributions to the workplace, and their health and wellbeing.

There is an urgent need to document the specific social and environmental barriers they may be facing in relation to menstrual management, to conduct a costing of the implications of inadequate supportive workplace environments for menstrual hygiene management, and to understand the implications for girls’ and women’s health and wellbeing. This will provide essential evidence for guiding national policy makers, the private sector, donors and activists focused on advancing girls’ and women’s rights.