USAID Kenya Integrated Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Project (KIWASH)
KIWASH aims to enable more than one million Kenyans across 9 counties to gain access to improved WASH services & increase access to irrigation & nutrition.
We are working with Geodesic Water Company in Kamulu, Nairobi County to increase household connections and access to water services, and improve reliability of water supply for more people.
Find out what KIWASH is doing to promote commercial lending to the Kenyan water sector.
Adopt or Adapt: Sanitation Technology Choices in Urbanizing Malawi. PLoS ONE 11(8): 2016.
Authors: Richard M. Chunga1, Jeroen H. J. Ensink, Marion W. Jenkins, Joe Brown
This paper presents the results of a mixed-methods study examining adaptation strategies that property owners in low-income, rapidly urbanizing areas in Malawi adopt to address the limitations of pit latrines, the most common method of disposing human excreta. A particular challenge is lack of space for constructing new latrines as population density increases: traditional practice has been to cap full pits and simply move to a new site, but increasing demands on space require new approaches to extend the service life of latrines.
In this context, we collected data on sanitation technology choices from January to September 2013 through 48 in-depth interviews and a stated preference survey targeting 1,300 property owners from 27 low-income urban areas. Results showed that property owners with concern about space for replacing pit latrines were 1.8 times more likely to select pit emptying service over the construction of new pit latrines with a slab floor (p = 0.02) but there was no significant association between concern about space for replacing pit latrines and intention to adopt locally promoted, novel sanitation technology known as ecological sanitation (ecosan).
Property owners preferred to adapt existing, known technology by constructing
replacement pit latrines on old pit latrine locations, reducing the frequency of replacing pit latrines, or via emptying pit latrines when full.
This study highlights potential challenges to adoption of wholly new sanitation technologies, even when they present clear advantages to end users. To scale, alternative sanitation technologies for rapidly urbanising cities should offer clear advantages, be affordable, be easy to use when shared among multiple households, and their design should be informed by existing adaptation strategies and local knowledge.
Learning from Sustained Success: How Community-Driven Initiatives to Improve Urban Sanitation Can Meet the Challenges. World Development, World Development Vol. 87, pp. 307–317, 201.
Past research by one of the authors of this paper has identified four key institutional challenges that community-driven initiatives to improve sanitation in deprived urban settlements face: the collective action challenge of improving community sanitation;
the coproduction challenge of working with formal service providers to dispose of the sanitary waste safely; the affordability challenge of reconciling the affordable with what is acceptable to both users and local authorities; and the tenure challenge of preventing housing insecurity from undermining residents’ willingness to commit to sanitary improvement.
In this article we examine how two well-documented, relatively successful and longstanding initiatives, the Orangi Pilot Project and an Alliance of Indian partners, met these challenges. They were met through social innovation, but also through the choice and development of sanitation technologies (simplified sewers for OPP and community toilet blocks for the Indian Alliance) that provided traction for the social innovations.
We also explore more recent efforts by civil society partnerships in four African cities, demonstrating some of the difficulties they have faced in trying to overcome these challenges. No equivalent models have emerged, though there has been considerable progress against particular challenges in particular places.
These findings confirm the importance of the challenges, and indicate that these are not just challenges for social organization, but also for technology design and choice. For example, the problem with household pit latrines is not that they cannot physically be improved to sufficiently, but that they are not well-suited to the social, economic and political challenges of sanitary improvement at scale.
The findings also indicate that a low economic status and a tendency to treat sanitation as a private good not suitable for public support also makes the sanitation challenges difficult to overcome.
To End Neglected Tropical Diseases, Start With The Basics Of Clean Water And Sanitation For The World’s Poorest. Huffington Post, April 26, 2017.
Despite ‘unprecedented progress’ further gains depend on water and sanitation, says the World Health Organization
Itai Nakoru, 87, from Adengei village, Nakapiripirit District, Karamoja region, Uganda is examined to see if she is fit for eye surgery to treat her trachoma
87-year-old Itai Nakoru, opens her eyes slowly so the doctor can examine them. She’s in excruciating pain because every time she blinks, her eyelashes scratch her corneas.
For the last six years, my eyes have been itching so much, this year, my left eye totally lost sight,” she explains.Itai lives in Uganda’s northeastern Karamoja region. She’s being examined by a doctor to determine if she can have surgery to treat her trichiasis, which is a result of repeated trachoma infection.
This eye disease is caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis and leads to inflammation, scarring the inside of the eyelid. The eyelids eventually turn inwards causing the eyelashes to scratch the cornea.
Trachoma is the leading cause of preventable blindness in the world, affecting almost two million people globally. In this region of Uganda, trachoma rates are the highest in the country, largely because the area is hot and dusty and sanitation is poor, making it a perfect breeding ground for bacteria.
Read the complete article.
The Business: Knowledge and Learning on Sanitation Marketing
The Western Pacific Sanitation Marketing and Innovation Program is funded by the Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (DFAT) CS-WASH Fund, implemented by Live & Learn Environmental Education in partnership with The International Water Centre (IWC), and the International Women’s Development Agency (IWDA).
Recent posts to The Business include:
Published on Mar 21, 2017
The FSM-MOOC will be launched on May 1 on Coursera. Please sign up for the course here: https://www.coursera.org/learn/faecal…. In May, all videos of the course will also be available on this YouTube-channel.
Published on Apr 24, 2017
Only 22% of Abidjan’s population has access to basic sanitation. Many low-income residents of the city live in compound houses of 4 to 45 persons, who share a common toilet.
The situation is not too different in Bihar where only 30% of the population have access to basic sanitation, and open defecation is still rife.
This webinar explores successes and failures of the strategies from:
- the USAID Sanitation Service Delivery (SSD) program’s Healthy Compound model in Abidjan, which is using a total market approach to develop prefabricated septic tanks made of ferrocement; and
- the Supporting Sustainable Sanitation (3Si) project in Bihar, which has used a market-based approach to overcome supply and demand barriers to latrine access and use.
- Bikas Sinha is 3Si’s General Manager for Programs. He will introduce the 3Si project and strategy and outline the milestones and learning.
- Lassina Togola is USAID SSD’s sanitation Technical Advisor in Abidjan. He will offer first-hand experience of progress, lessons and challenges to date regarding the Healthy Compound model.
- Dana Ward is SSD’s Chief of Party. He will introduce the discussion and set the context for providing affordable sanitation through the private sector.
In addition to the recorded webinar, the following supplementary resources are available: