Toilets need water, Indian women suffer under ODF drive

Toilets in households have only increased the drudgery of village women as they have to fetch water from faraway sources for toilet use, writes Amita Bhaduri, Programme Director of the Society for Promotion of Wastelands Development (SPWD), in an article posted on the Indian Water Portal.

Rajasthan is all geared up for the open defecation free (ODF) status well before the national deadline of October 2, 2019. According to the assistant engineer of the nagar parishad, Resha Singh, 4.75 lakh [475 thousand] toilets have been constructed since October 2, 2014 in Alwar district which is about to be declared ODF.

Paari, a 45-year-old woman of Ghevron ki dhaani village in the district got a toilet at her household under this toilet construction drive. She does not have to go far away to find a place for her sanitary needs anymore. She is, however, unhappy and exhausted from the numerous trips to the water source she has to make to get water in the toilet. Her feet are aching from treading the path filled with rocks and thorns without any footwear for protection.

Water access and women's donkey work

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Gaining new insights into CLTS and rural WASH from field visits to Babati and Karatu districts, Tanzania – CLTS Knowledge Hub

Gaining new insights into CLTS and rural WASH from field visits to Babati and Karatu districts, Tanzania – CLTS Knowledge Hub, June 2018. clts

CLTS and WASH in the East and Southern Africa region
A five-day regional workshop was held by the CLTS Knowledge Hub in Arusha, Tanzania, in order to foster sharing of knowledge and learning, ideas and innovations, challenges and approaches to CLTS and rural WASH among 36 sanitation practitioners working for international NGOs, cooperation agencies, research centres and at different government levels across eight countries1 from east and southern Africa.

Based on SNV and GoT’s work in the districts, one of the main goals from the visits to Babati and Karatu was to understand and further discuss how CLTS and WASH programming are responding to the need to make the approaches more equitable and inclusive as well as more sustainable in order to deal with the lack of access, the slippages and the low rates of improvement of sanitation facilities which make rural communities strive to reach and maintain Open Defecation Free (ODF) status.

Experiences from the field
The trips started with an early morning visit to a health centre where women with their children were being triggered about hygiene promotion by a local health worker. When we sat down in Magugu Health Centre in Babati, a common scenrio was being acted out by a young mother – she changes her baby’s nappy in front of the group but when she is finished doesn’t go to wash her hands – which prompted the audience to discuss what the problem with this was and what could have been done better. The triggering session then focused on the other critical moments for handwashing throughout the day. During the process the participants learnt about of the main hygiene hazards and procedures, and the health worker emphasised the importance of sharing these messages with the rest of the community.

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Taps and toilets aren’t enough: designing WASH programmes that strengthen the system – WaterAid

Taps and toilets aren’t enough: designing WASH programmes that strengthen the system – WaterAid, June 19, 2018.

Water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) programmes that focus solely on providing taps, toilets and one-off trainings are unlikely to deliver lasting outcomes. An overwhelming body of evidence highlights that services underperform and improved behaviours regress because there is insufficient ongoing support from permanent, in-country institutions and the local private sector. wateraid

Even in cases where development agencies successfully push for inclusion of WASH access in national policies, this does not necessarily bring about lasting, sustainable outcomes, unless there is also a robust supporting environment and strong government leadership at all levels.

Lasting services for the poorest and most marginalised will therefore only be achieved through efforts that focus on strengthening all aspects of the environment (or system) into which WASH services and behaviours are introduced.

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Can we regulate small and rural water supply and sanitation operators in Latin America?

Can we regulate small and rural water supply and sanitation operators in Latin America? Water Blog, June 2018. peru-colombia-field-visit-2.jpg

The recent reforms in the water supply and sanitation (WSS) legal framework in Peru has given the National Superintendence of Water Supply and Sanitation Services of Peru (SUNASS) a new role in the regulation and supervision of service providers in small towns and rural communities, expanding its regulatory action beyond the urban area scope.

Therefore, SUNASS needs to develop a regulatory framework and tools to effectively supervise around 28,000 small and rural operators, which provide service to 21% of the Peruvian population.

To achieve this goal, SUNASS, with the support of the World Bank, visited different WSS sector entities in Colombia which are responsible for the regulation, supervision and issuing policies regarding rural service provision. The objective of this South-South knowledge exchange was to gain valuable information from the Colombian counterparts about the challenges, lessons learned, and useful mechanisms for a successful reform process.

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Recent WASH research on water quality, sanitation and gender, community management and other topics

JOURNAL ARTICLES

Adherence to Point-of-Use Water Treatment over Short-Term Implementation: Parallel Crossover Trials of Flocculation–Disinfection Sachets in Pakistan and Zambia. Environ. Sci. Technol., May 2018.

Access to Household Water Quality Information Leads to Safer Water: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial in India. Environ. Sci. Technol., April 2018.

Access to water and sanitation among people with disabilities: results from cross-sectional surveys in Bangladesh, Cameroon, India and Malawi. BMJ Open, June 4.

The evolution and importance of ‘rules-in-use’ and low-level penalties in village-level collective action. Water Alternatives, 2018.

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Water Currents: Annual State of Handwashing Research

The State of Handwashing in 2017, a review of 117 handwashing-related research papers published last year, reveals some positive overall trends in the state of handwashing. handwashing

This research summary was conducted by the Global Handwashing Partnership (GHP), a coalition of international stakeholders working to promote handwashing with soap (HWS) and recognize hygiene as a pillar of international development and public health. USAID is a founding member of the partnership and has contributed funding annually to the coalition since 2001.

Read the complete issue.

2018 studies, reports and news updates on cholera prevention and control

The latest biweekly update contains journal articles, reports, etc. that have been published so far in 2018. Please let us know if you have additional studies and resources that should be added to this list:

OPEN ACCESS JOURNAL ARTICLES

Setting priorities for humanitarian water, sanitation and hygiene research: a meeting report. Conflict and Health, June 15, 2018.
In June 2017, the Research for Health in Humanitarian Crises (R2HC) programme of Elrha, convened a meeting of representatives from international response agencies, research institutions and donor organisations active in the field of humanitarian WASH to identify research priorities, discuss challenges conducting research and to establish next steps. Topics including cholera transmission, menstrual hygiene management, and acute undernutrition were identified as research priorities.

Cholera epidemic in Yemen, 2016–18: an analysis of surveillance data. The Lancet Global Health, June 2018.
Our analysis suggests that the small first cholera epidemic wave seeded cholera across Yemen during the dry season. When the rains returned in April, 2017, they triggered widespread cholera transmission that led to the large second wave. These results suggest that cholera could resurge during the ongoing 2018 rainy season if transmission remains active.

Editorial: No end to cholera without basic water, sanitation and hygiene. WHO Bulletin, May 2018.
A shared vision and unanimous agreement among Member States, partners and donors to prioritize broader social and environmental determinants of health, including water, sanitation and hygiene, is needed to end cholera.

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