Disease Priorities in Zambia. Am Jnl Trop Med Hyg, July 2016.
Author: Duncan Mara. School of Civil Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
An excerpt: Neonatal disorders are very important. Deaths due to neonatal sepsis and other neonatal infections have been rising steadily from 2,121 in 2000 to 2,704 in 2013. This may reflect poor WASH, the difficulty of accessing even basic-level health-care facilities in rural areas, and/or rural mothers not recognizing early symptoms of these diseases. Poor WASH should be addressed, as it is known to adversely affect maternal, infant, and child mortality. There also needs to be improved rural health care and targeted health/hygiene education for mothers and mothers-to-be.
Diarrheal diseases caused significantly fewer deaths in 2013 than in 2000. This parallels the decrease in unsafe water, unsafe sanitation, and unsafe hand hygiene, which must be sustained. The most dramatic decrease, nearly 60%, was seen in the number of human immunodeficiency virus, acquired immune deficiency syndrome, and tuberculosis deaths during 2010–2013. This truly excellent performance needs, of course, to continue.
As highlighted in this letter, an initial broad-brush approach using GBD Compare (or similar tools) is likely to produce good guidance on health priorities, especially in rural areas and periurban slums. Targeted detail can then follow.
Why Latrines Are Not Used: Communities’ Perceptions and Practices Regarding Latrines in a Taenia solium Endemic Rural Area in Eastern Zambia. PLoS Neg Trop Dis, Mar 2015.
Authors: Séverine Thys , Kabemba E. Mwape, et al.
Livestock owners from small scale farms are most vulnerable for Neglected Zoonotic Diseases (NZD) in developing countries and their risk behavior leads to more intense and complex transmission patterns. Studies in Africa have shown that the underuse of sanitary facilities and the widespread occurrence of free-roaming pigs are the major risk factors for porcine cysticercosis. However the socio-cultural determinants regarding its control remain unclear. We hypothesize that via a bottom-up culture-sensitive approach, innovative control strategies can be developed that are more adapted to the local reality and more sustainable than current interventions.
By assessing the communities’ perceptions, practices and knowledge regarding latrines in a T. solium endemic rural area in Eastern Zambia, we found that more than health, seeking privacy underlies motivation to use latrines or not. The identified taboos related to sanitation practices are in fact explained by the matri- or patrilineal descent and because men are responsible for building latrines, sanitation programs should focus more often on men’s knowledge and beliefs. In order to contribute to breaking the vicious cycle between poverty and poor health among livestock owners in developing countries, disease control strategies should always consider the socio-cultural context.
Despite most residents of African and Asian cities depending on non-sewered sanitation, only a handful of sanitation authorities have addressed the management of faecal sludge from these systems. This Practice Note describes the launch of a faecal sludge management (FSM) service in the peri-urban area of Kanyama, in Zambia.
Click on the image below for a free download.
May 6, 2014 – IIED presents SHARE-funded City-Wide Sanitation Project findings at the 11th International Conference on Urban Health at the University of Manchester | Source: SHARE website
SHARE partner IIED presented its findings on the challenges and opportunities of different models for improving sanitation in deprived communities at the 11th International Conference on Urban Health at the University of Manchester.
The work presented was published last year in a paper entitled “Overcoming obstacles to community-driven sanitary improvement in deprived urban neighbourhoods: lessons from practice”. Sanitary improvement has historically been central to urban health improvement efforts. Low cost sanitation systems almost inevitably require some level of community management, and in deprived urban settlements there are good reasons for favouring community-led sanitary improvement.
It has been argued that community-led sanitary improvement also faces serious challenges, including those of getting local residents to act collectively, getting the appropriate public agencies to co-produce the improvements, finding improvements that are acceptable and affordable at scale, and preventing institutional problems outside of the water and sanitation sector (such as tenure or landlord-tenant problems) from undermining improvement efforts. This paper examines these sanitary challenges in selected cities where organizations of the urban poor are actively trying to step up their work on sanitary issues, and considers they can best be addressed.
More funding for a local government-led approach introduced in 2008 by SNV and IRC to scale up sanitation from community to district level.
The UK’s Department for International Development (DFID) has awarded SNV Netherlands Development Organisation a €28 million (US$ 32 million) service contract to fund the Sustainable Sanitation & Hygiene for All (SSH4A) Results Programme. Introduced by SNV and IRC in 2008 in Nepal, Bhutan, Cambodia, Viet Nam and Laos, SSH4A is a comprehensive, local government-led approach to scale up sanitation from community to district level.
With funding from the DFID Results Fund, the SSH4A Results Programme will provide improved sanitation to more than 2 million people in nine countries: Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Mozambique, Nepal, South Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda and Zambia. The programme will also reach out to over 2.7 million people with hygiene promotion, make 1,200 communities Open Defecation Free (ODF), ensure that 400,000 people practice hand washing with soap at critical times, assist the preparation of district sanitation plans and improve local governments’ capacity for steering improved sanitation.
SSH4A programmes have been implemented with rural communities in 15 countries across Asia and Africa. In Asia, more than 2.2 million rural people have been reached, of whom 700,000 received improved sanitation.
Source: SNV, 28 Apr 2014
Posted in Africa, Funding, Hygiene Promotion, Sanitary Facilities, South Asia
Tagged DFID, Ethiopia, Ghana, IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre, Kenya, Mozambique, Nepal, SNV, South Sudan, SSH4A, Sustainable Sanitation and Hygiene for All programme, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia
Water and sanitation utilities commonly experience vandalism and theft of their
property. These acts of vandalism are widespread in both urban and rural settings and take a number of forms: they include water theft leading directly to a loss of revenue for the utility, and the vandalism and theft of valuable metal pipes, fittings and manhole covers leading to an increase in the utility’s maintenance costs. The extent of vandalism and theft experienced in a project or defined area can have a direct and significant impact on the performance of a utility, and where the service is negatively affected, this will ultimately impact on the well-being of customers. Despite anecdotal evidence of the prevalence of this problem research into the subject remains very limited, with a lack of documentation on interventions to reduce vandalism or the extent to which a reduction in vandalism can lead to improved water and sanitation services.
To explore strategies for combating this issue, WSUP has recently carried out a case study documenting experience in the Copperbelt region of Zambia, where Nkana Water and Sewerage Company (NWSC) are implementing a three-pronged, integrated approach to vandalism reduction.
Want to find out more? For a quick read download our two-page Practice Note. For a more in-depth analysis, see our Topic Brief.