Factors Associated With Pupil Toilet Use in Kenyan Primary Schools. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, 2014, 11(9), 9694-9711; doi:10.3390/ijerph110909694
Joshua V. Garn, Bethany A. Caruso, et al.
The purpose of this study was to quantify how school sanitation conditions are associated with pupils’ use of sanitation facilities. We conducted a longitudinal assessment in 60 primary schools in Nyanza Province, Kenya, using structured observations to measure facility conditions and pupils’ use at specific facilities. We used multivariable mixed regression models to characterize how pupil to toilet ratio was associated with toilet use at the school-level and also how facility conditions were associated with pupils’ use at specific facilities.
We found a piecewise linear relationship between decreasing pupil to toilet ratio and increasing pupil toilet use (p < 0.01). Our data also revealed significant associations between toilet use and newer facility age (p < 0.01), facility type (p < 0.01), and the number of toilets in a facility (p < 0.01). We found some evidence suggesting facility dirtiness may deter girls from use (p = 0.06), but not boys (p = 0.98).
Our study is the first to rigorously quantify many of these relationships, and provides insight into the complexity of factors affecting pupil toilet use patterns, potentially leading to a better allocation of resources for school sanitation, and to improved health and educational outcomes for children.
WASHplus and Peace Corps/Benin have teamed up to produce a set of training and job aids for Peace Corps Volunteers and their counterparts. Eventually, Peace Corps/Benin would like all volunteers serving in Benin to have some WASH training to integrate WASH into whatever their primary program focus is – education, health, environment.
Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) Toolkit
– Part 1 – Boîte à Outils: Assainissement Total Pilote par la Communaute (ATPC), 2014. Cette boîte à outils soutient l’exécution de la méthode « Assainissement Total Piloté par le Communauté » (ATPC). Cette méthode est basée sur les activités qui permettent aux membres de la communauté de prendre conscience du fait que la défécation à l’air- libre est un risque sanitaire pour tout le monde.
– Part 2 – Le Manuel Pas a Pas, 2014.
Household Water Treatment and Safe Storage
– Part 1 – Boîte à Outils: Le Traitement de l’Eau et la Conservation Sûre, 2014. Avoir accès à l’eau potable est un élément important pour rester en bonne santé et éviter les maladies – spécifiquement les maladies diarrhéiques.
– Part 2 – Manuel de Formation des Comites de Gestion d’Eau Villageois, 2014. Les matières dans cette boîte à outils servent principalement à aider les personnes chargées de promouvoir le traitement de l’eau et la conservation au niveau des ménages.
WASH in Schools Toolkit
– Part 1 – Boîte à Outils: l’Eau, l’Hygiene et l’Assainissement (WASH) en Milieu Scolaire, 2014. Pour cela, nous avons développé cette boîte à outils pour les activités en vue de la promotion de l’eau, l’hygiène, et l’assainissement (dénommé WASH) en milieu scolaire. Cette boîte contient l’essentiel pour la réussite d’une gamme d’activités.
– Part 2 – Guide des Possibilites d’Assainissement en Milieu Scolaire: Options pour l’Amelioration de ‘Assainissement, 2014.
More attention should be given to the assessment of nutrition practices when assessing the impact of WASH on the health of school children. We also don’t know enough about the long term impact of WASH interventions on child health. These are some of the conclusions that researchers from the Center for Global Health and Development at the the University of Nebraska Medical Center (UNMC) drew from a review of the literature .
Dr. Ashish Joshi and research assistant Chioma Amadi reviewed the impact of water treatment, hygiene, and sanitary interventions on improving child health outcomes such as absenteeism, infections, knowledge, attitudes, and practices and adoption of point-of-use water treatment. For their final analysis they selected 15 peer-reviewed English-language studies published between 2009 and 2012 that focused on the effects of access to safe water, hand washing facilities, and hygiene education among school-age children.
November 21, 2013 – 2nd Annual Virtual Menstrual Hygiene Management (MHM) in WASH in Schools (WinS) Conference Background: The 2nd annual virtual MHM conference will provide an opportunity to share MHM lessons learned with the WASH in Schools (WinS) community around the world with a particular focus on the tools and instruments being utilized to explore the MHM barriers facing girls, and to measure and evaluate interventions being trialed or implemented. The conference will provide an opportunity to:
- Share MHM related research tools,
- Share MHM research findings from different countries
- Share recommendations for adaptation of existing MHM research tools for WINS practitioners.
There has been much research, programming and policy work conducted over the last year since the inaugural MHM conference, and the 2nd annual conference will enable the showcasing of these findings, and continue to move forward the global effort to fill existing gaps in knowledge and advocacy. We will be hosting another joint Columbia University and UNICEF one-day conference on November 21, 2013 that will bring together WASH and/or MHM experts, relevant global health and education experts, UNICEF country offices, academics and organizations from around the world currently implementing MHM-related activities. This one-day event will provide an opportunity to share experiences on a diversity of contexts along with enabling joint discussion on the way forward.