Tag Archives: Kenya

What Kenya Can Teach The U.S. About Menstrual Pads

What Kenya Can Teach The U.S. About Menstrual Pads | Source: NPR, May 10, 2016 |

The United States is only just starting to get periods — or, at least, acknowledging that products for “that time of the month” aren’t optional for menstruating women.

In 40 states, plus the District of Columbia, pads and tampons are subject to sales tax. Earlier this year, when President Obama was asked why they haven’t been exempted like other necessities, he said, “I suspect it’s because men were making the laws when those taxes were passed.”

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Faith Wanjoki of ZanaAfrica gives a lesson on how to use a sanitary pad in a classroom in Kisumu, Kenya. Her colleague, Catherine Onyango, sits by her side. ZanaAfrica Foundation

But there’s a movement to fight these taxes, and several states have eliminated them. Next up: New York, which has just passed a bill that’s awaiting Gov. Andrew Cuomo’s signature.

Meanwhile, one country is way ahead of the U.S. when it comes to understanding that pads and tampons shouldn’t be taxed.

It’s Kenya.

Kenya repealed its value added tax on pads and tampons back in 2004 to lower the price consumers pay. And since 2011, the Kenyan government has been budgeting about $3 million per year to distribute free sanitary pads in schools in low-income communities.

That’s not to say Kenya is an ideal place to get one’s period. Many Kenyan girls still don’t have access to sanitary products, so they use unhygienic materials like chicken feathers, cheap mattresses and newspapers to fashion makeshift pads, says Megan White Mukuria.

Mukuria is the founder of ZanaAfrica Foundation, which delivers health education — and sanitary pads — to help girls stay in school. A girl who is embarrassed to stain her uniform (or has an infection) is one who is likely to skip class and eventually drop out, Mukuria explains. UNESCO estimates that more than two million Kenyan girls need support in order to get menstrual hygiene products.

Read the complete article.

Evolution of Solid Waste Management Policy Landscape in Kenya: Analysis of evolvement of policy priorities and strategies

Evolution of Solid Waste Management Policy Landscape in Kenya: Analysis of
evolvement of policy priorities and strategies, 2016.

Tilahun Nigatu Haregu, Blessing Mberu, Abdhalah K. Ziraba. African Population and Health Research Center, Nairobi, Kenya

Introduction: Since independence, there have been various policy frameworks developed to guide the management of solid wastes in Kenya. Analysis of the progressive development of the policy landscape would be useful to inform the implementation of existing policies and the formulation of future policies relevant to solid waste management in the country.
Objectives: To explore the evolution of solid waste management policies in Kenya from the
perspective of policy priorities and strategies for solid waste management that address health outcomes.

Methods: This study was an integrative synthesis of the policy priorities and strategies
stipulated by the major solid waste management policies in Kenya since independence and
how they address SWM associated health outcomes. The synthesis addressed the
evolvement, devolvement and segmentation of solid waste management policies as well as
the institutional mechanisms for policy processes and external policies shaping the policy
landscape.

Results: Analysis of the progressive development of policy architecture indicated that solid waste management policies in Kenya has evolved to specificity in terms of focus, functions and scope. There is a magnificent shift from focusing criminalizing offences to promoting good practices; from generic Acts to specific ones; and from centralized mandates to more decentralized responsibilities. The roles of local level implementation mechanisms is also increasing. However, the environment perspective is more emphasized than the health and economic perspectives of solid waste management principles.

Conclusion: Despite the progressive and chronological development of solid waste
management policy priorities and strategies, their focus on environment dominates over
health outcomes.

SWIFT Story of Sustainable Change: Improving access to safe, sustainable sanitation in Nadapal, Turkana

SWIFT Story of Sustainable Change: Improving access to safe, sustainable sanitation in Nadapal, Turkana, 2016. OXFAM.

In Nadapal, a village in northern Kenya, residents had no access to sanitation, and instead practised open defecation in the bushes. Illnesses including diarrhoea, malaria and cholera were common. swift

Now, however, many of the households in Nadapal have built their own latrines within easy reach and have access to safe, sustainable sanitation for the first time, after Practical Action began implementing the Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) approach.

WASH Alliance Kenya – Impact of a school WASH club

Obunga clean up & waste pickers 2014-2015

Combating poverty and building democracy through the co-production of participatory waste management services: The case of Kisumu, Kenya.

A research project by:
The inhabitants of Obunga, Nyalenda and Manyatta
The many waste actors in Kisumu
City of Kisumu
County Government of Kisumu
Kisumu Waste Management Services KWAMS
Jaramogi Oginga Odinga University of Science and Technology JOOUST
Maseno University
University of Victoria
University of Gothenburg
Chalmers University of Technology

Funded by:
The Swedish International Centre for Local Democracy ICLD

Achievements and constraints of public finance for water and sanitation in Kenya. Interview with Samson Shivaji, CEO of KEWASNET

EXCLUSIVE INTERVIEW! Samson Shivaji is CEO of KEWASNET (the Kenya Water and Sanitation Civil Society Network), and the Kenyan Civil Society Organisation (CSO) Focal Person within the Sanitation and Water for All (SWA) platform. In this exclusive interview for PF4WASH, Mr. Shivaji responds to a series of questions about the need for increased public finance of sanitation in Kenya.
kewasnetceo

Factors Associated With Pupil Toilet Use in Kenyan Primary Schools

Factors Associated With Pupil Toilet Use in Kenyan Primary Schools. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, 2014, 11(9), 9694-9711; doi:10.3390/ijerph110909694

Joshua V. Garn, Bethany A. Caruso, et al.

The purpose of this study was to quantify how school sanitation conditions are associated with pupils’ use of sanitation facilities. We conducted a longitudinal assessment in 60 primary schools in Nyanza Province, Kenya, using structured observations to measure facility conditions and pupils’ use at specific facilities. We used multivariable mixed regression models to characterize how pupil to toilet ratio was associated with toilet use at the school-level and also how facility conditions were associated with pupils’ use at specific facilities.

We found a piecewise linear relationship between decreasing pupil to toilet ratio and increasing pupil toilet use (p < 0.01). Our data also revealed significant associations between toilet use and newer facility age (p < 0.01), facility type (p < 0.01), and the number of toilets in a facility (p < 0.01). We found some evidence suggesting facility dirtiness may deter girls from use (p = 0.06), but not boys (p = 0.98).

Our study is the first to rigorously quantify many of these relationships, and provides insight into the complexity of factors affecting pupil toilet use patterns, potentially leading to a better allocation of resources for school sanitation, and to improved health and educational outcomes for children.