Tag Archives: Kenya

Trading in trash: Nairobi’s e-waste entrepreneurs – in pictures

Trading in trash: Nairobi’s e-waste entrepreneurs – in pictures. The Guardian, February 1, 2017.

From small-scale traders to a company processing hundreds of tonnes of e-waste, we explore Nairobi’s relationship with a burgeoning waste stream and visit the people turning it into a resource. Photographs and words by Nathan Siegel.  nairobi

John Obanda, who owns a repair shop, fixes a broken motherboard. Obanda sources items from collectors who work in nearby landfill sites and is one of thousands of traders who buy and recycle discarded electrical and electronic goods in Nairobi.

E-waste has ballooned in the city in the past decade due to rising mobile phone penetration and a burgeoning middle class.

Read the complete article.

Kenya – Entrepreneur who makes building materials from waste

Entrepreneur who makes building materials from waste. Standard Digital, January 27, 2017.

standard

Dr Aghan Oscar displays one of the tiles made at his factory using waste plastics.

With the high prices of steel, vandalism of metals and rotting of timber, experts in the built environment are coming up with alternative building technologies that are cheap, durable and free from vandalism.

One such expert is Dr Aghan Oscar, who is recycling waste plastic into building materials and selling them to developers who use them to provide affordable housing.

Dr Oscar produces the materials at his industry in Kariobangi South, Nairobi. Some of the products include lumber planks, paving slabs, manhole covers, ridge tiles, and fencing posts.

The company – Continental Renewable Energy Co Ltd (Corec) – was born in 2013. Dr Oscar has contracted Kariobangi youth to collect, clean, crush and sell scraps to the factory.

The fencing posts come in various sizes that sell for between Sh800 and Sh1,000 per post. He says they make about 100 posts per day and sell them to the Kenya National Highways Authority and individuals.

Read the complete article.

Estimating the Cost and Payment for Sanitation in the Informal Settlements of Kisumu, Kenya: A Cross Sectional Study

Estimating the Cost and Payment for Sanitation in the Informal Settlements of Kisumu, Kenya: A Cross Sectional Study. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 49; doi:10.3390/ijerph14010049

Authors: Sheillah Simiyu, Mark Swilling, Richard Rheingans and Sandy Cairncross

Lack of sanitation facilities is a common occurrence in informal settlements that are common in most developing countries. One challenge with sanitation provision in these settlements is the cost and financing of sanitation.

This study aimed at estimating the cost of sanitation, and investigating the social and economic dynamics within Kisumu’s informal settlements that hinder provision and uptake of sanitation facilities. Primary data was collected from residents of the settlements, and using logistic and hedonic regression analysis, we identify characteristics of residents with sanitation facilities, and estimate the cost of sanitation as revealed in rental prices.

Our study finds that sanitation constitutes approximately 54% of the rent paid in the settlements; and dynamics such as landlords and tenants preferences, and sharing of sanitation facilities influence provision and payment for sanitation. This study contributes to general development by estimating the cost of sanitation, and further identifies barriers and opportunities for improvement including the interplay between landlords and tenants.

Provision of sanitation in informal settlements is intertwined in social and economic dynamics, and development approaches should target both landlords and tenants, while also engaging various stakeholders to work together to identify affordable and appropriate sanitation technologies

Comparing Sanitation Delivery Modalities in Urban Informal Settlement Schools: A Randomized Trial in Nairobi, Kenya

Comparing Sanitation Delivery Modalities in Urban Informal Settlement Schools: A Randomized Trial in Nairobi, Kenya. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(12), 1189; doi:10.3390/ijerph13121189

Authors: Kate Bohnert, Anna N. Chard, et. al.

The provision of safely managed sanitation in informal settlements is a challenge, especially in schools that require durable, clean, sex-segregated facilities for a large number of children. In informal settlements in Nairobi, school sanitation facilities demand considerable capital costs, yet are prone to breakage and often unhygienic.

The private sector may be able to provide quality facilities and services to schools at lower costs as an alternative to the sanitation that is traditionally provided by the government. We conducted a randomized trial comparing private sector service delivery (PSSD) of urine-diverting dry latrines with routine waste collection and maintenance and government standard delivery (GSD) of cistern-flush toilets or ventilated improved pit latrines.

The primary outcomes were facility maintenance, use, exposure to fecal contamination, and cost. Schools were followed for one school year. There were few differences in maintenance and pathogen exposure between PSSD and GSD toilets. Use of the PSSD toilets was 128% higher than GSD toilets, as measured with electronic motion detectors.

The initial cost of private sector service delivery was USD 2053 (KES 210,000) per school, which was lower than the average cost of rehabilitating the government standard flush-type toilets (USD 9306 (KES 922,638)) and constructing new facilities (USD 114,889 (KES 1,169,668)). The private sector delivery of dry sanitation provided a feasible alternative to the delivery of sewage sanitation in Nairobi informal settlements and might elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa.

 

 

The Sanitation-Education Connection: What’s a toilet worth in Kenya?

Published on Nov 19, 2016

Sanitation is a critical, yet often overlooked fundamental human right. This documentary, first in a series, broadly describes the worth of the sanitation-education connection in one area of Kenya, by defining its challenges and presenting solutions.

Water may be life, but the quality of our lives is determined in part by our health and wellbeing. It may be surprising to many of us, but in countries like Kenya, health is largely affected by access to toilets. Sanitation is a critical, yet often overlooked fundamental human right. Globally 2.5 billion people lack access to adequate sanitation. The resulting health risks touch all ages and affect every aspect of life: education included. Impacts reverberate through economies and generations as individuals fail to meet their full potential. Unfortunately sanitation is generally not a topic of common conversation nor is it often an economic priority. It becomes then, a silent emergency.

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USAID APHIAplus -Community-led sanitation in Nakuru County, Kenya

Published on Aug 3, 2016

APHIAplus Nuru ya Bonde project works with technical teams in five Kenyan counties to improve water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH). Over the past five years, the project has helped to significantly increase access to functional latrines in the five counties it covers.

In Nakuru County, Efforts are focused on working with public health officials and communities to stamp out open defecation, practiced by only 3% of the community. This video presents some of the project’s work in the county.

 

High-Resolution Spatial Distribution and Estimation of Access to Improved Sanitation in Kenya

High-Resolution Spatial Distribution and Estimation of Access to Improved Sanitation in Kenya. PLoS One, July 2016. Authors: Peng Jia , John D. Anderson, Michael Leitner, Richard Rheingans

Background – Access to sanitation facilities is imperative in reducing the risk of multiple adverse health outcomes. A distinct disparity in sanitation exists among different wealth levels in many low-income countries, which may hinder the progress across each of the Millennium Development Goals.

Methods – The surveyed households in 397 clusters from 2008–2009 Kenya Demographic and Health Surveys were divided into five wealth quintiles based on their national asset scores. A series of spatial analysis methods including excess risk, local spatial autocorrelation, and spatial interpolation were applied to observe disparities in coverage of improved sanitation among different wealth categories. The total number of the population with improved sanitation was estimated by interpolating, time-adjusting, and multiplying the surveyed coverage rates by high-resolution population grids. A comparison was then made with the annual estimates from United Nations Population Division and World Health Organization /United Nations Children’s Fund Joint Monitoring Program for Water Supply and Sanitation.

Results – The Empirical Bayesian Kriging interpolation produced minimal root mean squared error for all clusters and five quintiles while predicting the raw and spatial coverage rates of improved sanitation. The coverage in southern regions was generally higher than in the north and east, and the coverage in the south decreased from Nairobi in all directions, while Nyanza and North Eastern Province had relatively poor coverage. The general clustering trend of high and low sanitation improvement among surveyed clusters was confirmed after spatial smoothing.

Conclusions – There exists an apparent disparity in sanitation among different wealth categories across Kenya and spatially smoothed coverage rates resulted in a closer estimation of the available statistics than raw coverage rates. Future intervention activities need to be tailored for both different wealth categories and nationally where there are areas of greater needs when resources are limited.