Tag Archives: behaviour change

Accelerating and sustaining behaviour change: New handbook launched at GSF learning event

This week, the Global Sanitation Fund (GSF) and the GSF-funded ‘Fonds d’Appui pour l’Assainissement’ (FAA) in Madagascar launched a new handbook on accelerating and sustaining the end of open defecation.

The handbook was launched during the GSF Learning Event in Antananarivo, Madagascar, inaugurated by Madagascar’s Minister of Water Sanitation and Hygiene, Roland Ravatomanga.

A community celebrating the creation of their ‘model latrine’ for others to replicate during a FUM session in Madagascar. Credit: WSSCC

A community celebrating the creation of their ‘model latrine’ for others to replicate during a FUM session in Madagascar. Credit: WSSCC

The ‘Follow-up MANDONA’ (FUM) handbook is a field guide for practitioners of Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) – an empowering approach for improving sanitation and hygiene through collective behaviour change, rather than external subsidies or prescription. FUM aims to systematically engage communities after they have been initially ‘triggered’ and committed to ending open defecation.

‘Mandona’ is a Malagasy word which means ‘to push’. FUM brings the entire community together for a self-analysis of their sanitation situation, which then helps them immediately create models that prevent the ingestion of faeces. The approach harnesses the power of Natural Leaders to replicate these models across the community, which includes helping those that are least able, in order to advance to ODF status. By focusing on sustainable behaviour change, FUM is also a useful tool for addressing issues surrounding ‘slippage’, which relates to returning to previous unhygienic behaviours.

FUM was developed and refined by MIARINTSOA NGO, a sub-grantee of the FAA programme. Given the success of FUM in Madagascar and elsewhere, the GSF and FAA created the FUM handbook to provide a practical guide for how CLTS practitioners can implement the approach in their own contexts.

Download ‘Follow-up MANDONA: A field guide for accelerating and sustaining open defecation free communities’ (English/French)

The weeklong global event where the handbook was launched brings together implementing partners, WASH experts, and high-level government representatives from GSF-supported programmes. These actors are exchanging ideas and sharing best practices for achieving improved sanitation and hygiene behaviour at scale.

During the launch, WSSCC Executive Director Chris Williams highlighted how FUM is engraining the sustainability of sanitation and hygiene behaviour change in Madagascar and beyond. “Once a village, or an entire commune, has reached ODF status, the story isn’t over. In fact, the work continues. This important publication documents the innovations that Madagascar has put together to systematically follow-up with villages. FUM aims to ensure that the change in attitudes and creation of convictions that my ‘sanitation problem is your sanitation problem’ – ‘or my shit is your shit’ – is dealt with as a collective community effort.”

WSSCC Executive Director holds up the Follow-up MANDONA handbook at GSF Learning Event opening ceremony. Credit: WSSCC/Okechukwu Umelo

WSSCC Executive Director holds up the Follow-up MANDONA handbook at GSF Learning Event opening ceremony. Credit: WSSCC/Okechukwu Umelo

FUM has become one of FAA’s most important tools for empowering over 1.6 million people to live in open defecation free environments on their own terms. Due to its success in Madagascar, FUM has recently become a core strategy for national sanitation and hygiene programmes in Uganda, Nigeria, Benin, and Togo.

Community members in Nigeria agreeing to trigger their neighbours and help those who don’t have the means to build their own latrine. Credit: WSSCC

Community members in Nigeria agreeing to trigger their neighbours and help those who don’t have the means to build their own latrine. Credit: WSSCC

Kamal Kar, the Chairman of the CLTS Foundation, which has extensively supported the FAA programme to develop their CLTS approach, emphasized the importance of the handbook in sharing proven approaches to practitioners around the world: “I am glad that the Malagasy NGO, MIARINTSOA, with the help of the FAA programme, WSSCC and the GSF, has systematically documented their experience of post-triggering follow-up from their implementation of CLTS over the last 4-5 years. Publication of this Follow-up MANDONA handbook is indeed a step forward towards country-wide scaling up of good practice of CLTS in Madagascar and beyond.”

Eugène-De-Ligori-Rasamoelina,-Executive-Director-of-MIARINTSOA-NGO,-which-developed-and-refined-Follow-up-MANDONA---WSSCC

Eugène De Ligori Rasamoelina, Executive Director of MIARINTSOA NGO, which developed and refined Follow-up MANDONA. Credit: WSSCC

“I must say that the emergence of thousands of ODF villages in Madagascar, starting with my multiple support visits to the country since 2010 to strengthen the approach, is a brilliant example of quality CLTS implementation with its central philosophy of local empowerment. I believe that this handbook will be useful in understanding and ensuring post-triggering follow-up in CLTS for sustained behaviour change.”

Find out more about the Global Sanitation Fund on the WSSCC website.

How the World Bank is ‘nudging’ attitudes to health and hygiene

How the World Bank is ‘nudging’ attitudes to health and hygiene | Source: The Guardian, March 4 2016 |

Nudge theory has been used to identify why people smoke or fail to pay taxes on time, can it now be used to fight malnutrition and open defecation?

Every two months, 800 women gather in a church courtyard in the village of Tritriva, Madagascar, to receive cash from the Malagasy government. Mothers of six- to 10-year-olds get the payment only if their children have regularly attended school. For those with children under five, it’s unconditional – but they are given information about family health and nutrition.

nudging

Many of the problems governments and NGOs in developing countries are trying to fix are at least partly behavioural, says Varun Gauri. Photograph: Rob Cooper/AP

With more than half of Madagascar’s children chronically malnourished, it is vital these women take note. But the problem is not just financial. Breaking long-term habits, such as spending the bulk of your income on rice, is extremely difficult – especially, according to recent research, for those living in extreme poverty.

This is where nudge theory comes in. It is about using insights from behavioural science to identify reasons why people make bad choices, such as smoking or failing to pay taxes on time, and then testing small changes in the way choices are presented to “nudge” them into making better decisions. In the school example above, it was about optimising how these families spent the money they received from the government.

Read the complete article.

WSUP – Behavior change in Dhaka

 

Mar 2015 Eawag course on Systematic Behaviour Change in Development Projects

We would like to announce our next practice-oriented Eawag course on the topic of “Systematic Behaviour Change in Development Projects”. The applied course will take place on March 5 – 6, 2015, at Eawag Dübendorf.

The course will enable participants to plan, design, and evaluate evidence-based behaviour change campaigns. The participants will learn how to conduct a quantitative survey of behavioural determinants, how to identify the required behaviour change techniques and how to prove the effects and effectiveness of these techniques. eawag

A live presentation of Dr. Kamal Kar about the CLTS<cltsfoundation.org/> approach and a Q&A session will be an integrated part of the course.

Participating in the course via internet using a video connection is available. For registration please click www.eawag.ch/lehre/peak/kurse/index_EN

Suzanne Benz and Evelin Vogler Committee’s office PEAK

Eawag PEAK
Überlandstrasse 133
P.O.Box 611 CH-8600 Dübendorf
Switzerland
www.eawag.ch

Towards total sanitation workshop report – key findings

Cotonu Workshop Key Findings report

How can Community Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) and other programmatic approaches be  integrated into a service-led rural sanitation delivery? This was the topic that attracted  around 70 practitioners from 16 different countries  to Cotonu, Benin in November 2013 for a Learning and Exchange workshop  “Towards sustainable total sanitation”. The workshop was organised  by IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre in partnership with WaterAid, SNV and UNICEF.

The key findings of the workshop a presented in a new report, which is divided into four categories, covering the four conditions to trigger a service:

  • strengthening the enabling environment
  • demand creation and advocacy to change behaviour
  • strengthening the supply chain, and
  • appropriate incentives and financial arrangements.

Nepal: first municipality achieves “Total Behaviour Change”

Hygiene and Sanitation indicators - Nepali.  RWSSP-WN

Hygiene and Sanitation indicators – Nepali. RWSSP-WN

A municipality in western-central Nepal has been the first in the country to achieve Total Behaviour Change (TBC) in Hygiene and Sanitation.

TBC refers to a set of water, sanitation and hygiene behaviours and practices that lead to long term community health improvements.

Dana VDC (Village Development Committee) in Myagdi District was  declared to have achieved TBC in Hygiene and Sanitation on 14 August, 2013. Certification was awarded by the District Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Coordination Committee (DWASHCC).

Myagdi is one the districts covered by the Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Project in Western Nepal (RWSSP-WN),  a bilateral development cooperation project funded by the governments of Nepal and Finland.

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Improving Access to WASH: Is the Answer Individual Behavioral Change?

Improving Access to Water and Sanitation: Is the Answer Individual Behavioral Change? | Source: Dr. John Akudago, Pacific Institute – June 25, 2013 |

Born and raised in rural Africa where I spent my youthful life, open defecation was not only the norm but preferred to outhouses that were poorly ventilated and unbearably hot. We did not understand the consequences of exposing human waste around our houses. At that time, the best practice for sanitation and hygiene was to use a hoe to excavate the ground and bury our feces during the farming season so that the food we grew in the wild did not get contaminated.

Our knowledge on water was even poorer. We drank any water we found in the streams and rivers with little understanding that the water source could be contaminated. The few hand-dug wells in the villages at that time were considered to be the best source of potable water because they appeared the cleanest. However, with an entire village relying on a few water sources, the demand for water from these wells was high and sometimes resulted in arguments over who got what water and how much of it.  Not surprisingly, the lack of potable water in the villages led to a high prevalence of water related diseases.  Guinea-worm and bilharzia were common water-related diseases suffered by most children, especially those of us who swam in rivers and streams.

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