Tag Archives: faecal sludge management

Market-based Approaches to Sanitation

Market-based Approaches to Sanitation, 2016. PSI.

Market-based approaches can be applied to deliver a number of products (such as household, shared, or public toilets, using various designs and materials), services (like installation or waste removal and treatment) and forms of service delivery (free or pay-for-use).

This review focuses on models for household pit latrine construction and fecal sludge management.

Fecal Sludge Management Tools – World Bank

Fecal Sludge Management Tools – World Bank

In many cities, the emptying, conveyance, treatment and disposal of fecal sludge has largely been left to unregulated private, informal service providers. FSM_header

To address this neglected but crucial part of urban sanitation, the World Bank has developed some tools to diagnose fecal sludge management (FSM) status and to guide decision-making.

These tools don’t provide pre-defined solutions, as the many variables and stakeholders involved demand interventions specific in each city, and should be seen within the context of integrated urban water management.

Link to the FSM Tools website.

Recent reports, videos on fecal sludge management


4th International Faecal Sludge Management Conference (FSM4) to be Held in Chennai, India, February 2017. FSM4 will focus on innovative and practical solutions that can be scaled up, including three tracks: research, case studies, and industry & exhibition.


Fecal Sludge Management in Madagascar. WASHplus, 2016. This video summarizes the WASHplus activity in Madagascar on turning “poo into profit.”

Low Cost Technologies for Faecal Sludge Management (FSM) in Kampala, Uganda: A Video. Water for People, May 2016. This holistic approach to sanitation and faecal sludge management is impacting many peoples’ lives, particularly in the slums of Kampala.


Introduction to Faecal Sludge Management. EAWAG, December 2015. This online video course produced by Linda Strande for the FSM e-Learning alliance (http://www.fsm-e-learning.net/) gives an introduction to faecal sludge and fecal sludge management.

Overview of Faecal Sludge Management (FSM) Technologies. EAWAG, December 2015. This online course gives an overview of the current knowledge of faecal sludge management treatment technologies and end products within the framework of technical tools that can be used for selecting and designing them.


Co-Composting of Solid Waste and Fecal Sludge for Nutrient and Organic Matter Recovery. International Water Management Institute, 2016. This research paper was prepared to support planners, researchers, development experts and practitioners in their work, by providing practical guidance and the latest knowledge related to co-composting of organic waste from municipal waste streams, including human excreta.

Faecal Sludge Management: WASH in Emergencies Problem Exploration Report.Humanitarian Innovation Fund, 2016. The management of excreta during an emergency in an urban context has very limited options. This report puts forward a few areas for further exploration and development.

Experiences of Developing Pit-Emptying Businesses in East Africa. Stone Family Foundation, 2015. Findings presented at the 2015 WEDC conference from Water and Sanitation for the Urban Poor, Water for People, and WaterAid, which have all tested slightly different approaches to developing pit-emptying businesses in East Africa, with a focus on business models for the manual emptying of pit latrines.

Co-Composting of Solid Waste and Fecal Sludge for Nutrient and Organic Matter Recovery. International Water Management Institute, 2016. This research paper was prepared to support planners, researchers, development experts and practitioners in their work, by providing practical guidance and the latest knowledge related to co-composting of organic waste from municipal waste streams, including human excreta.

Co-composting: New take on traditional technology for better soils and sanitation

Co-composting of solid waste and fecal sludge for nutrient and organic matter recovery, 2016. Colombo, Sri Lanka: International Water Management Institute (IWMI). CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE).. 47p.

Authors: Cofie, Olufunke; Nikiema, Josiane; Impraim, Robert; Adamtey, N.; Paul, Johannes; Kone, D.

Biological treatment, composting, in particular, is a relatively simple, durable and inexpensive alternative for stabilizing and reducing biodegradable waste. Co-composting of different waste sources allows to enhance the compost nutrient value. In particular, integration of ‘biosolids’ from the sanitation sector as potential input material for co-composting would provide a solution for the much needed treatment of fecal sludge from on-site sanitation systems, and make use of its high nutrient content.

This research paper elaborates in detail the main parameters that govern the co-composting process as well as factors that control the production of a safe and valuable quality compost. It further explains technological options to tailor the final product to crop and farmer needs.

Bangladesh – Faecal sludge management new sanitation challenge

Bangladesh – Faecal sludge management new sanitation challenge | Source: The Daily Star, May 18 2016 |

Emphasising the need for managing the faecal sludge (human excreta) speakers at a roundtable yesterday said this sludge will pose huge threats to environment and public health if not properly managed.


Participants at a roundtable titled “Faecal Sludge Management: Second Generation Sanitation Challenge” at The Daily Star Centre in the capital yesterday, jointly organised by the newspaper, DSK, ITN-Buet, and Practical Action. Photo: Star

The construction of thousands of pit latrines without thinking of ensuring proper hygienic separation of excreta from human contact and faecal sludge management (FSM) eventually emerged as a second generation sanitation problem for the country, they said at a programme at The Daily Star Centre in the capital.

Practical Action Bangladesh, ITN-Buet, Dushtha Shasthya Kendra (DSK) and The Daily Star jointly organised the programme.

Prof Muhammad Ashraf Ali, a teacher of Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, gave a keynote presentation on “Faecal Sludge Management: Key Issues and the Institution and Regulatory Framework.”

He mentioned that only four million or 20 percent of the total population of Dhaka city is currently under the sewerage network coverage while the rest 156 million are covered by on-site system. “In the absence of proper pit-emptying services in the latrines, the pit-contents are often drained into the surrounding low lying areas manually posing a great risk to cleaners and public health,” he observed.

Read the complete article.

Good shit, good business?

Good shit, good business? The current focus on small-scale entrepreneurs and looking for the holy grail of market-led solutions to deal with sludge is only the latest in the series of “fads” typical of the sanitation sector. by Rémi Kaupp. Source: | Broken Toilets, Feb. 29 2016


On-site sanitation is typically serviced by the informal sector. Nairobi, October 2013. Photographer: Linda Strande

We cannot continue to treat the issue of toilets and sludge from a purely economic and technological angle. In NGOs, our market-led focus has been a convenient way to charm the new private philanthropists while ignoring the political side. While we are busy equipping some local entrepreneurs with new pumps, utility companies continue to focus on water and (sometimes) sewerage, ignoring the billion people living in slums who bear most of the health burdens of poor sanitation.

Our initiatives are too often isolated and do little to influence those utilities, who have the mandate to serve their residents and the ability to borrow and invest in large infrastructure. Our work needs to be ultimately targeted at the local authorities and the utility companies so that they take the same interest as we do in the challenging – and motivating – issue of on-site sanitation and sludge.

Read the complete article.

VIA Water second faecal sludge webinar report

Which technical options are available for the reuse of faecal sludge? Report of a VIA Water webinar led by Jan Spit.


© S. Blume/SuSanA Secretariat

Report on the webinar: read the questions that were asked before and during the webinar, and Jan Spit’s answers to them:

  1. D2B: http://english.rvo.nl/subsidies-programmes/develop2build-d2b
  2. DRIVE: http://english.rvo.nl/subsidies-programmes/development-related-infrastructure-investment-vehicle-drive

In Germany: KfW: https://www.kfw.de/International-financing/. For innovative funding, look at: http://www.traidwheel.nl/appropriate-finance/Innovative-financing-mechanisms

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