Tag Archives: faecal sludge management

Ushering a new era in sanitation value chain management in India

Report of a WASH Dialogue on faecal sludge and septage management.

By Anupama Sahay

Cambodia faecal sudge management-crop

Faecal sludge management in Cambodia. Photo: Dany Dourng

Is Faecal Sludge and Septage Management (FSSM) an effective and long-term solution in the sanitation value chain? That was the question that Indian sanitation experts reflected on in Jaipur, the state capital of Rajasthan, at a multi-stakeholder dialogue on ‘FSSM Matters: Looking Forward’ on 10 January 2017. The dialogue was the second of the “Insights” series launched last year by the India Sanitation Coalition (ISC), IRC and TARU Leading Edge.

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Information on fecal sludge management

4th International Faecal Sludge Management Conference (FSM4), February 19-23, Chennai, India. FSM4 will focus on innovative and practical solutions that can be scaled up, including three tracks: research, case studies, and industry and exhibition.

Sanitation Service Delivery (SSD) Program – Ghana, Ivory Coast and BeninSustainable Sanitation Alliance, November 2016. SSD is a USAID/West Africa urban sanitation project implemented in Cote d’Ivoire, Benin, and Ghana. The project aims to improve sanitation outcomes through developing and testing scalable, market-based models that contribute to structural change within the region’s sanitation sector. Several posts to this forum discuss the SSD program and provide links to SSD’s reports and webinars.

Fecal Sludge Management ToolsThe World Bank, June 2016. The World Bank has developed some tools to diagnose fecal sludge management (FSM) status and to guide decisionmaking. These tools do not provide predefined solutions, as the many variables and stakeholders involved demand interventions that are specific to each city and should be seen within the context of integrated urban water management.

Faecal Waste Flow CalculatorIRC WASH, 2016. The tool is developed to determine fecal waste volumes along the entire service chain, allowing city planners, service authorities, or any other users to determine where the biggest losses are and where interventions should be targeted. Less easily quantifiable issues such as the existence of policies and legislation, availability and transparency of plans and budgets, and presence and adherence to environmental and safety standards are captured with the use of score cards.

Fecal Sludge Management in MadagascarWASHplus, March 2016. This video discusses how USAID’s WASHplus project engaged the international NGO Practica to design and pilot a private-sector service delivery model to sustainably manage fecal sludge generated in the peri-urban area of Ambositra using low-cost decentralized technologies.

2016 WEDC Conference Presentations on Fecal Sludge ManagementSanitation Updates, August 2016. This post has links to each of the eight WEDC 2016 conference presentations on fecal sludge management, topics include analysis of fecal sludge collection efficiency and overcoming capacity gaps in fecal sludge management through education and training.

Smaller is Better when Investing in Fecal Sludge Management in AsiaAsian Development Blog, August 2016. This article discusses small wastewater projects that differ from the bank’s traditional approach of focusing on developing bigger centralized systems that involve large, extensive wastewater networks and infrastructure.

Is There Fecal Sludge on Your Salad? IWA Network, January 2017. This article discusses the Sanitation Safety Planning tool that helps optimize the reuse of wastewater, grey water, and excreta.

SFD toolboxSustainable Sanitation Alliance, January 2017. An excreta flow diagram (also often described as shit flow diagram, SFD) is a tool to readily understand and communicate visualizing how excreta physically flows through a city or town.

Assessing Public Health Risks from Unsafe Fecal Sludge Management in Poor Urban Neighborhoods: What Does SaniPath Tell Us about Exposure to Fecal Contamination in 12 Neighborhoods in 3 Cities? Sanipath, August 2016. This presentation compares the latest results of the SaniPath Study from three different study sites: Accra, Ghana; Vellore, India; and Maputo, Mozambique, and discusses the reliability of the SaniPath Tool data.

Standard For Decentralised Faecal Sludge Treatment In Developing Countries

Standard For Decentralised Faecal Sludge Treatment In Developing Countries. Water Online, November 8, 2016.

TÜV SÜD has started developing a private technical standard for decentralized treatment plants. The aim is to promote innovations for safe and environmentally friendly sanitation in developing countries. The work is funded by a grant from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

“Our experience proves the value of standards in promoting new technologies”, says Dr Andreas Hauser, Director of Water Services at TÜV SÜD. “Establishing common guidelines is a key step towards fostering next-generation faecal sludge treatment plants as well as engaging commercial interests”. The standard will refer to technologies that can convert waste into beneficial outputs, like electricity, biomass, water for irrigation and ash – in accordance with the resource-oriented sanitation approach.

They are operated on a commercial basis and serve up to 10.000-100.000 people improving hygiene, living conditions and creating economic opportunities. For them to become accepted and adopted essential criteria need to be met concerning for example functional safety, treatment performance, occupational health or emission values.

The private technical standard is to define these criteria. It is a follow-on project within the Gates Foundation’s Omni-Processor program. Beginning in November 2015 TÜV SÜD has been examining and evaluating the various requirements and possibly relevant standards for decentralized, community scale faecal sludge treatment solutions.

Developing a standard now takes this work to a new level. Dr Andreas Hauser: “A private technical standard for decentralized faecal sludge treatment plants will benefit the entire value chain towards a resource-oriented sanitation approach.”

Read the complete article.

Targeting urban sanitation – looking behind aggregated city-level data

Targeting urban sanitation – looking behind aggregated city-level data. World Bank Water Blog, Oct 31, 2016. waterblog.png

In our previous blogs – Fecal Sludge Management: the invisible elephant in urban sanitation,  5 lessons to manage fecal sludge better, and A tale of two cities: how cities can improve fecal sludge management – we outlined the neglect of Fecal Sludge Management (FSM) and presented new tools for diagnosing urban sanitation challenges and how they can be used.

Today, on World Cities Day, we are looking more deeply into a city – Lima, Peru, to shed light on how cities around the world can meet opportunities and address challenges of urbanization including providing improved sanitation for a rapidly growing number of urban residents.

The city-wide sanitation picture

To apply one of the better known FSM tools – the fecal waste flow diagram (SFD) – we use data to provide a city-wide picture of sanitation services at the household level, and how the fecal waste flows through the ‘sanitation service chain’: removal and conveyance from the household containment or WC, to treatment and final disposal or reuse.

SFDs provide an easy to understand and visual representation of where fecal waste and the associated pathogens and pollution end up. This enables decision-makers and technical staff to understand and discuss the priority sanitation issues requiring attention in their city.

Read the complete article.

2016 WEDC conference presentations on fecal sludge management

The 122 presentations from the 2016 WEDC conference are now online at http://wedc.lu/wedc39 and below are links to presentations on the topic of fecal sludge management. wedc_moodle

  1. A socio-economic analysis of different approaches to faecal sludge treatment in Sunyani, Ghana Mallory, Adrian
  2. An exploration of sanitation and waste disposal practices in low-income communities in Accra, Ghana Abraham, Ernest M
  3. Analysis of faecal sludge collection efficiency for improvement in developing countries Flamand, Pierre
  4. Comparison of scales for faecal sludge gravimetric characterization in low-resource settings Therrien, Jean-David
  5. Development of low-cost decentralized faecal sludge treatment system for resource recovery Atwijukye, Osbert
  6. Effects of high-strength fecal sludge in wastewater stabilization ponds: Port-au-Prince, Haiti Martinsen, Andrea
  7. How to improve sanitation in Mae La refugee camp: SI sludge treatment unit Cavalazzi, Fabrizio
  8. Overcoming capacity gaps in fecal sludge management through education and training Philippe, Sterenn

 

4th International Faecal Sludge Management Conference

4th International Faecal Sludge Management Conference, 19 – 22 February 2017, Chennai, India

Worldwide, 2.7 billion people rely on onsite sanitation. Yet, there is still typically no management system in place to deal with the resulting faecal sludge (e.g. septage and pit latrine sludge). The result is that the waste typically ends up being dumped directly into the urban environment, with significant health and environmental implications. Creating faecal sludge management (FSM) infrastructure and public services that work for everyone, and keep faecal sludge out of the environment is a major challenge for achieving universal sanitation access.

To address this challenge, a global platform for discussion of FSM was created in 2011 by leading global sector organizations. The aim was to share and brainstorm potential solutions, to formulate policy recommendations that promote best practices, and to identify lessons learned in how to make FSM an integral part of sanitation service delivery. Building on the success of the first three International FSM Conferences in Hanoi (2015) and in Durban (2011& 2012), FSM4 aims to bring together professionals working in the sector, including utilities, service providers, cities, governments, academics, scientists, consultants, donors and industries, to support the global initiative of disseminating sustainable solutions for FSM.

FSM4 will be held in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, where the State Government has recently initiated measures to address FSM with regard to policy, regulatory changes, innovative solutions, and pilots. FSM4 will focus on innovative and practical solutions that can be scaled up, including three tracks: research, case studies, and industry & exhibition.

 

5 lessons to manage fecal sludge better

5 lessons to manage fecal sludge better | Source: by Peter Hawkins & Isabell Blackett, World Bank Water Blog, July 19 2016 |

Our last blog outlined the neglect of Fecal Sludge Management (FSM) and presented new tools for diagnosing FSM challenges and pointing the way to solutions.

World Bank Document

A motorized tricycle fitted with a small tank provides desludging services in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania. Photo credit: Kathy Eales / World Bank

In this blog, we’ll share some lessons learned from the city-specific case studies and analysis to highlight key areas which need to be addressed if the non-networked sanitation services on which so many citizens rely are to be effectively managed.

Lesson 1: Fecal sludge management must be included in national policy and legislation

On-site sanitation is often the only sanitation option for poor households, and may account for the majority of all sanitation, in many middle income and poor countries. However, the construction and servicing of on-site facilities is typically left to the unregulated informal sector.

There can even be legal barriers to developing on-site sanitation, although integrated urban water management may identify the provision of clean piped water, with systematic FSM, as a cheaper, more effective solution than city-wide sewerage access. The formal recognition and regulation of on-site sanitation and FSM is therefore critical.

Read the complete article.